Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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Evesham

[Eusham]

Worcestershire

OS grid ref: SP 035 435

 
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Gloucester
Gloucester
NGR: SO 830 187

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Dudstone and Kings Barton, county of Gloucester. 34 miles north-north-east from Bristol. The city comprises the parishes of St. Aldate, St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt, St. Mary de Grace, St. Nicholas, St. Owen and Holy Trinity; also parts of St. Catherine, St. Mary de Lode and St. Michael, all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Gloucester, of which it is the seat. St. John Baptist, St. Mary de Crypt and St. Michael are discharged rectories; St. Mary de Lode and Holy Trinity are discharged vicarages; St. Aldate, St. Catherine, St. Mary de Grace and St. Nicholas are perpetual curacies

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Kenilworth [Kenelworth]

Warwickshire

OS grid ref: SP 295 715

 
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Wigingamere [Wigmore]

Possibly near Newport, Essex

 
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Windsor
NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Worcester
NGR: NGR: SO 855 554

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the county of Worcester, of which it is the capital. Seat of the Bishopric of Worcester. 111 miles north west by west from London. The City comprises the parishes of St Alban, All Saints, St Andrew, St Clement, St Helen, St Martin, St Nicholas, St Peter and St Swithin. All in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. St Alban is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; All Saints is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Crown; St Andrew is a discharged vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Clement is a discharged rectory in the same patronage; St Helen is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Nicholas is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Martin is a rectory in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Peter is a vicarage in the same patronage; and St Swithin is a discharged rectory in the same patronage.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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357 [334]

Prince Edward escapeth. K. Hen. almost slaine. Simon Mountefort and many Lords slaine.

of þe Erle of Gloucester, which was neare about the Earle Symon, & made him to consent with them therein. And to work this thing more circumspectly, whē oportunitie serued therunto: Roger Mortimer sent vnto the kings sonne a horse excelling all other in footmanship, vnto whome he might be sure to trust, when he saw conuenient tyme therunto. After which things thus contriued, Prince Edward desired leaue of the Earle to proue his courser against such time he should ryde at the tylt, as they might when they listed. Assoone as he had gotten leaue, and that with gallopyng and raunging the field he had weryed diuers of their horses: at the last, getting vp vpon the horse which for that purpose was sent, and spying a seruaunt on horsebacke cōming toward him with two swords: MarginaliaPrince Edward escapeth frō out of the custody of Earle Simon by a trayne.He turned about vnto his keeper, whose name was Robert de Rose, & to other his playfellowes that were with him, saying: My louing Lords, thus long haue I kept you company, & haue bene in your custodies: And now not purposing to vse your cōpanyes any longer, betake you to God: And quickely turning his horse about, put to the spurres and away went he. The other pricked after a pace, but yet came far inough behinde, and ouertake hym they coulde not. At last, when they sawe Roger Mortimer comming from his Castle of Wygmore, accompanyed with many armed men to meete him as before it was appointed, they returned again home as wise as when they came foorth. And when this the princes escape was diuulgated: much people came vnto hym out of euery quarter, with great ioy therof. Amongest whom, the first was the Earle of Gloucester, and the other souldiours of the kings, which had long now lien at Bristow, and thereaboutes. And within a short space he had a great and mighty host.

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Which thing when the Earle Symon vnderstode, he much doubted and mistrusted himselfe: And sending into Wales, he gate from thēce a great many men, and augmēted hys power as strongly as he might, from euery part of England. MarginaliaThe Earle Simon sendeth about, and in all hast gathereth a power.He sent also Simon his sonne to the noble men of the North partes, that with all possible speede he might bring them with him: who with a great companye came with him, and at Kenelworth a while they stayd, and there pitched their tents. But leauing Kenelworth for a certein time they went to Winchester, and spoyled the same, and then returned agayne to Renelworth. And when this by a certen spiall was declared to Edward the kynges sonne, who then was at Worcester, which he had gotten after he came from Gloucester a little before: prepared himselfe with hys souldiours, in the night season to goe to the place where the spye should bring hym, which was into a deepe vally nere vnto the place, where Simon and his company had pitched. MarginaliaThe first enterprise of prince Edward after his escape by the meanes of a spie.And whē in the morning they were very early about to arme thēselues, and prepare theyr horses: they heard a great noyse of theyr enemies comming towardes them. Then thinking, that they had prepared themselues agaynst their comming, and so had bene betraied: they set forth in battell aray marching forward, till that they mette certeine of theyr enemies straggling in long winges, thinking to haue gone aforaging & to haue sought for vitailes: whō they took, & with their fresh horses, new horsed their souldiours that had their horses tyred wt long trauell. And so marching forward, came very early in the morning vpō theyr enemies, whom for the most part they found sleeping and laying lustily about them: they slew diuers, some they toke, the rest they put to flight: and 15. of theyr chiefest ensignes they tooke, and many other rich spoyles. But yong Simon himself lodged in the Castell, who with a few with him escaped and fled. And this was the fourth day before the Nones of August. an. 1265.

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But when Edward, heard that Earle Simon was cōming toward Kenelworth, to ioyne with hys sonnes battell: he marched forward to meete hym, þe third day after at Eusham. MarginaliaThe disposing of the princes battayle against the Earle Simon fought at Eusham.Where he deuided hys host into 3. battayles, he himself hauing the leading of one, the Earle of Gloucester the secōd, and Roger Mortimer the third, which came vpō their backs. The kings sonne Edward came Northward as though he came frō Kenelworth to Eusham, & because he would not be descride, he caused hys owne standerdes and ensignes to be taken down, and yong Simons which he had taken before to be aduanced. But the Erle Simons Scurier, whose name was Nicholas, shewed the Earle þt such bandes and companies were marching towards him who thinking the same to haue bene Simon hys sonnes power, not knowing of the ouerthrow whiche he had before, gaue small credite thereunto: till that þe said Nicholas the better to view and descrie them, went vp to the Abbey steple of Eusham, where he might plainly discerne them all and their standerds: For by this tyme, they were mounted the hill which they laboured to attayne, thinking to hauethat vauntage, when they shold geue theyr charge as they had purposed: and had also aduanced agayn his own standerdes, and pulled down Simons, wherby they were the more easlyer descried and knowne. Then he cryed aloud to the Earle Simon and said, we are all but dead men: For it is not your sonne as you suppose that commeth, but it is Edward the kinges sonne, that commeth from one parte: and the Earle of Gloucester, from an other part, and Roger Mortimer from the third part. MarginaliaPrince Edwards host descried, whereat the Earle was much abashed. Then said the Earle. The Lorde be mercifull vnto our souldes, forasmuch as our bodyes and liues are now in their handes: commaunding that euery man should make hymselfe redy to God, and to fight out the field, for that it was their willes to dye for their lawes and in a iust quarrell: And such as woulde depart, he gaue leaue to goe their wayes that they shoulde be no discomfiture to the rest.

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Then came vnto him his eldest sonne Henry & comforted him, desiring him to haue no dispaire, nor yet mistrust in the good successe of this victory, with other such cheerfull wordes. MarginaliaThe wordes of Earle Simon to his sonne.No my sonne (sayth he) I dispayre not: but yet, it is thy presumption and the pride of the rest of thy brethrē that haue brought me to this end ye see. Notwithstanding yet I trust, I shall dye to God and in a righteous quarrel. After wordes of comfort geuen to all his host, and the oration made as is the maner, they all armed themselues. The king also (whom the Earle alwaies kept with him) he armed in an armour of his owne. And then deuiding theyr battailes, they marched toward theyr enemies, but before they ioyned, the Welchmen ran theyr waies, and thinking to scape ouer the riuer of Dee, were there some drowned, & some slayne. Then when the battayles ioyned and came to handy strokes, within short space, many of the Erles part fell and were slayne. MarginaliaK. Henry almost slain in the battell, at length knowen by his voice & reskued by his sonne.And the king himselfe being stroken at, cryed with a loud voyce to them, saying: kill me not, I am Henry your king. And with these the kinges wordes the Lord Adam Monhaut knewe him, and saued him. At whose voyce and cry came also prince Edward hys sonne, and deliuered him to the garde and custody of certayne knightes, In þe meane season, the Earle Simon was hard bestead and beaten downe, and also slayne before Edward the prince came at hym. Howbeit, before he fell, when as ye fought for his life, & Hēry his sonne & other noble men on his part were about hym, he brake out in these words vnto hys enemies saying: what, is there no mercy & compassion with you? Who agayne answered, what compassion should there be shewed to traytors? Then sayd he, þe Lord be mercifull to our soules, our bodyes are in your hands. And as soone as these wordes were spoken, they mangled hys body, and deuided his members, and cut of his head, which head Roger Mortimer sent vnto his wife. MarginaliaEarle Simon, his sonne, and many moe Lordes and Barons slaine at this battell of Eusham.And not farre of from him also was slayne Henry his eldest sonne, the lord Hugh Spencer, the L. Radulphe Basset, the Lord Thomas de Hestele, the Lord William Maundeuile, the Lord Iohn Bewchampe, the Lord Guido Baillofer, the Lord Roger Rowley, and many other noble men besides with a great multitude of people the Lord knoweth howe many. This battail was fought in the moneth of August & continued from one of the clocke till it was night: in the which, was not so much as one man on the Earles part of any estimation, fortitude, and courage, but in that battell lost his life: more then the Lord Iohn, who by the great grace of God escaped death. Neither is this to be forgottē, that the same day being Tuesday, at that instant houre, when the battell began, whiche was at one of the clocke at after noone: there was such a darcknes ouer all, such thunder and such tempest: that the like before that time was neuer seene, being very calme and fayre weather both immediately before and after, which seemed (sayth myne author) to geue a playne demonstration of that whiche afterward chaunced and followed.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1266. A parliament summoned at Winchester, where K. Henry was againe restored to his regalitie.After this great slaughter and ouerthrow, there was a Parliament sūmoned at Winchester by the Earle of Gloucester, and other of hys part. 

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End of baronial war

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

Here by the is to be considered, that the king although he was in the camp of the Erle of Leceister, being then in custody, and his sonne Edward with the Earle of Gloucester, yet the king was in that side agaynst his will, and therefore in the sayd Parliament, the king was restored to his kingly dignitie which was before that tyme vnder the custody of the Barons. But after the battaile was ended and done, certaine of them that loued the Earle: vpon an old ladder, gathered vp suche partes of his body as remayned, and couering the same with an old gowne brought it to Eusham: where they putting þe same in a faire linnen cloth, buried it in þe church. But not lōg after, by such as thought not themselues sufficiently reuenged with his death (to wreke them of the dead corpes) took vp the same and threw it in an other place, saying: that he

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