Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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[Almisbury; Almsbury]

near Stonehenge, Wiltshire

OS grid ref: SU 155 415

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NGR: NZ 274 425

City and capital of the County Palatine of Durham. Seat of the Bishopric. 67 miles west north west from York. The City comprises the parishes of St Giles, St Mary le Bow, St Mary the Less, St Nicholas, St Oswald and St Margaret; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Durham. St Giles is a perpetual curacy, St Mary le Bow a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Archdeacon of northumberland, St Mary the Less a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Crown, St Nicholas a perpetual curacy, St Oswald a vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and St Margaret a perpetual curacy annexed to the vicarage of St Oswald.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

373 [350]

K. Edward. 1. Petitions of the L. to the K. Agreement betweene the K. and his Nobles.

of the whole commons, that the premonition or writs directed to them for their attendaunce vpon his grace into Flaunders, was not sufficient: for that there was no certaine place in the sayd writs specified vnto them whether to come for making their prouision, and preparing mony & other things according to the same. And if the place had bene to thē signified, yet because none of their aūcesters euer serued the king ouer into Flaūders before, the cōmōs therfore thought themselues not bound to any seruice in þt country. And albeit they had bene so bound therunto, yet they were not able to doe it, being so heauyly oppressed wt so many tallages, taxes, tolles, customes, & prices of corne Ores, Tinne, Wood, Lether, Oxen, Kyne, Flesh Fish. &c. And besides all this, hauing no peny of wages geuē them to relieue their charges: Ouer and besides the lacke of the kinges wages not payd them, their owne pouerty like an heauy burden did so miserably lie vpon them, that some of them had no sustentatiō, some of them were not able to till their owne groūd. The alledged moreouer, that they were not now handled after the olde lawes and customes of the land, as their auncestors were wont. Many also foūd thēselues grieued in that they were not vsed according to the Articles conteined in MarginaliaMagna Charta. Charta de foresta.Charta magna, nor agayne that the Charta de foresta, was not obserued nor kept as was wont to be. Wherfore, most humbly they beseeched the king both for his owne honor and for the wealth of his people, that of these thinges they might finde redresse. MarginaliaCustome for Wolle.For the custome moreouer of woll, the whole commons bewayled to the king their griefe: in that for euery pack of woll was fined to the king xl. s. and for euery sack of tosed wool, 7. marks. The which wooll of England, as it doth rise vp to the value of halfe the realme: so the tollage of the same surmounteth to the fift part of the valuatiō of the whole land. And because therfore the commons wished the honor & preseruatiō of their king (as they were boūd to do) they thought it not good for his grace to sayle ouer to Flaūders, vnlesse he had better assuraunce of their fidelity, especially at thys time the Scots being so busy: Who if they began to rebell he being at home in his land, much more were they like to stirre, he being abroad out of the land. And that not onely for the Scottes: but also for that the like perill was to be doubted of other forraine nations and kingdomes, which as yet were in no firme peace with England. &c.

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MarginaliaThe kynges answere to the petitiōs of the Barōs & the commons.To these petitions, the king sayd that he could as yet make no resolute answere, for that his counsell, some was gone ouer alredy to Flaunders, some were yet at Londō. Notwithstanding, at his returne againe from Flaunders (which he trusted should be spedely) they should thē heare his answere and know more of his minde concerning the same. In the meane time this he required of them, to keep good rule at home while he was forth. What aunswere the king had minded to make them at his returne, it is vncertayne, which peraduenture had turned to a bloudye aunswere: but occasion serued otherwise, and turned all to agreement. For the Scottes with theyr captayne William Waleys aboue specified, in the time the king being absent, inuaded the Realme with such violence: that Prince Edward the kings sonne, who was left to rule in his fathers stead, was forced to assemble a Parliament, and to call for MarginaliaHumfrey Bonne. Roger Bigot.the Earle of Hereford, the Earle of Northfolke, high Marshall of England, Earle of Essex high Constable, with other Earles, Barons, Knightes, and Esquirs, to entreat peace and concord betweene his father and them. Who cōming vp to London with 1500. well armed souldiers, and obteining the gates of the City with their own men, fell at length to agreement with the Prince, vpon composition to haue the Articles of magna Charta and of Charta de foresta, confirmed, and that by his meanes & mediation they might be assured of the kinges displeasure to be remoued from thē. The which forsayd articles of Magna Charta with þe other articles adioyned withall, here follow vnder written.

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MarginaliaThe articles conteined in Magna Charta.First, no tollage or subsidy by the king or his heires to be imposed or leuied hereafter within the realme of England, without the common assent of the Archbishops, Byshops, Abbots & other prelats, Earles, Barōs, Knights, Burgeses, and Commons of the realme.

Item, no taker or seruiture of the king or of his heirs henceforth within this realme, to take grain, wooll, lether or any goods of any man, without the will and consent of him which is the owner.

No taking to be hereafter, in name of tribute, for any packe of woll.

Item, to be graunted by the king and his heires after him, both to the clergy and laity of this foresayd Realme: to haue and to enioy their lawes, liberties & customes, in as ample maner as they were wōt at any time heretofore.

Item, if any decrees or statutes shal hereafter be made and set forth contrary to these foresaid articles: the same to stand voyd and of no effect for euer.

Besides these articles also in the same compositiō was conteined: MarginaliaAgreement concluded and sealed betwene the K. and his Barons.that all grudge and displeasure betwene þe king and the Barons for not going to Flaunders ceasing: the Earles and Barōs might be assured to be receiued againe into the kings fauor.

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MarginaliaThe moderate and good nature of K. Edward noted.These things thus agreed vpon, and by mediation of the Prince also confirmed and sealed with the kings seale his father: so was all the variance pacified, to the great comfort of the people, and no lesse strength of the Realme agaynst theyr enemies: And most chiefly to the commēdation of the gentle and wise nature of the king: Who as he was gentle in promising his reconcilement with his subiectes, so no lesse constant was he in keeping that which he had promised.

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MarginaliaRob. Winchelsey Archb. of Cant.After the death of Iohn Peckham Archb. of Canterbury aboue mentioned, who in the Parliament had resisted the king in the right of certayne liberties perteing to the crowne, touching patronages and such Church matters: succeeded Robert Winchelsei, wt whom also the king had like variance: and accused him to the Pope for breaking the peace, and tooke part with them that rebelled agaynst the king about vsages and liberties of the Realme. MarginaliaK. Edward was troubled with two Archb. of Cant. Wherefore, the king being cited vp to the court of Rome, was there suspended, by þe meanes of the said Archb. directed his letters agayne to the Pope taken out of þe parliament rolles where I finde diuers letters of the king to P. Clement agaynst the sayde Robert Archbishop of Canterbury the contentes wherof here followeth videlicet qualiter idem. And as this king was troubled in his time with both the Archbishoppes, Iohn Peckham, and also Rober Winchelsey, so it happened to all other kinges for the most part, from the time of Lancfrancus (that is from Pope Hildebrand) that euery king in his time had some busines or other with that see. MarginaliaThe church of Rome, and Romish prelates set against kings and rulers.As William Rufus, and Henry the first were troubled with Anselmus: Hēry the second with Thomas Becket: King Richard and all England, wyth William Bishop of Elye the Popes Legate: King Iohn with Stephē Langthon: King Henry the third with Edmund Archbishop, called S. Edmūd. Polic. lib. 7. Likewise this king Edward the first, with Iohn Peckham & Robert Winchelsey aforesayd. MarginaliaKings of England commonly troubled with Archb. of Cant. And so other kinges after him, with some Prelate or other: whereby ye haue to vnderstand, how & about what time the church of Rome, which before time was subiect to kings and Princes, began first to take head aboue, and agaynst kings and rulers, and so haue kept it euer since.

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By this Iohn Peckam afore mentioned, was ordayned: MarginaliaPriestes to haue but one beneficethat no spiritual minister should haue any mo benefices then one, which also was decreed by the constitutions of Octo and Octobonus, the popes Legats the same time in England.

MarginaliaVariaunce betweene the Archb. of Yorke and the clergie of Duresme.About the beginning of this kinges reigne, after the decease of Walter Archbishop of Yorke: William Wicewanger succeeding in that sea, minding to go on visitatiō: came to Duresme to visit the Church and Chapter there. But the clergy and the people of the City, shoote the gates agaynst him, and kept him out, wherupon rose no smal disturbance. The Archb. let flie his curse of excommunicatiō and interdiction agaynst them. The Bishop of Duresme agayne with his clergy, despised all his cursinges, grounding themselues vpon the constitution of Innocentius þe fourth, De censibus & ex actionibus. And so they appealed to Rome, saying: that he ought not to be receiued there, before he had first begon to visit his owne Chapter & dioces, which he had not done. For to say the wordes of the constitutions: We ordayne and decree that euery Archbishop, that will visite his prouince, first must procure to visit hys owne Church, City, and Dioces. &c.

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MarginaliaInquisitiō made against yl rulers and false officers Traibastoun.Among other thinges in this king to be noted, that is not to be passed ouer: that where complaynt was made to him of his officers, as Iustices, Maiors, Shiriffes, Bailiffes, Excheters, and such other: who in their offices abusing themselues, extortioned and oppressed the kinges liege people, otherwise then was according to the right & conscience: the sayd king not suffering such misorder to be vnpunished, did appoint certain officers or inquisitors to the number of 12. which inquisitiō was called Traibastō. or Trailbastoun: by meane of which inquisition, diuers false officers were accused, & such as were offenders were either remoued from their place, or forced to buye agayne their office at the kinges hand: to their no small losse, and great gayne to the king, and much profite to the common wealth.

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In the Chronicle of Robert Amesbury it is recorded

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