Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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Auberoche [Allebroke]

nr Périgueux, Gascony

Coordinates: 45° 11' 35" N, 0° 43' 18" E

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Brie [Bryers]

Ariège, France

Coordinates: 43° 12' 23" N, 1° 31' 9" E

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Carentan [Cardone; Cadane]

Manche, Normandy, France

Coordinates: 49° 18' 11" N, 1° 14' 52" W

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St Vaast-la-Hougue (La Hougue) [Hogs]

Cotentin peninsula, France

Coordinates: 49° 36' 0" N, 1° 16' 0" W

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Vannes [Vanes]

Brittany, France

Coordinates: 47° 39' 21" N, 2° 45' 37" W

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NGR: SU 967 768

A borough, market town and parish having separate jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Ripplesmere, county of Berkshire. 20 mile east by north from Reading, 22.5 miles west by south from London. The castle, built by Henry I, occupies more than 12 acres of ground, comprising upper, lower and middle wards. A principal royal residence in Tudor times. The living [of the town] is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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408 [384]

K. Edvvard. 3. The voyage of the K. into Fraunce. The K. of Eng. letters of defiance.

After these thinges thus passed ouer, the King shortly after sent ouer his Procuratours, Earle of Lancaster and Darby, Hugh Spencer, L. Rafe Stafforde, wyth the Byshop of Exetor and diuers other, to the popes court to discusse and plead about the right of his title, before the pope. MarginaliaThe Popes message to the king.Vnto whom the said Pope Clement the 6. not long after, sent down thys message: how that Ludouike duke of Bauarie, the Emperour whom the pope had before deposed, had submitted himselfe to hym in all things, and therefore deserued at his hands the benefite of absolution: And how the pope therfore had cōferred and restored vnto him iustly and gratiously the Empire, which he before vniustly did holde. &c. MarginaliaThe kings aunswere to the Popes message.Which message when the King did heare, beyng therwith moued to anger, answered againe, saying: That if he did agree and compound also with the Frenche king, he was ready to fight with them both. &c. Ex chro. Albanen.

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Within the time of this yere, pence, halfepence, and farthings began to be coyned in the tower. And the next yere folowing, which was an. 1344. MarginaliaAnno. 1344. the castle of Winsor (where the king was borne) began to be repared: MarginaliaThe Castle in Windsore enlarged. and in the same, the house called the rounde table was situate, the diameter wherof from the one side to the other, contained 200. feete, MarginaliaThe rounde table builded in Windsore. to the expēces of which house weekly was allowed an C. li. for the mainteining of the kings chiualrie: till at length by the occasion of the French warres, it came downe to ix. li. a weeke. By the example whereof, the Frenche king being prouoked, began also the like round table in Fraunce, for the maintaining of the knighthoode. At which time the sayd French king moreouer gaue free libertie through his realme to fel downe trees for making of ships & maintayning of his nauie, whereby the Realme of Englande was not a litle damnified.

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MarginaliaTenthes graunted to the king by the clergy for 3. yeares.During the same yere, the Clergie of England graunted to the king tenthes for 3. yeres: for the which the king in recompence againe graunted to them his Charter containing these priuiledges: MarginaliaPriuileges granted by the king to the clergie.that no Archbishop nor Bishop should be arreigned before his Iustices, siue ad sectam suam, siue partis, if the sayd clarke do submit & claime his cleargy, professing himselfe to be a member of holy Church, who so doing shall not be bound to come to his answer before the Iustices. And if it shall be layd vnto them to haue maryed two wiues, or to haue maried a widow: MarginaliaBy this it is lyke that priestes had wiues. the Iustices shall haue no power to proceede against them, to inquire for the matter: So that the cause shall be reserued to the spirituall court. &c.

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MarginaliaPrince Edward first prince of Wales.About this present time at he setting vp of the rounde table, the king made Prince Edwarde his eldest sonne the first prince of Wales. Al this while yet continued the truce betweene the 2. kings. Albeit it is likely to be thought that þe French king gaue many attempts to infringe the same. Wherupon Henry earl of Lancaster wt 600. men at armes, and as many archers as were sent ouer to Gascoin, þe yere after, an. 1345. MarginaliaAnno. 1345. Henry Erle, after made duke of Lancaster sent ouer to Gasconie. who there so valiantly is said to behaue him selfe, that he subdued 55. towneships vnto the king, 23. noble men, he toke prisoners, encountring wt the French men at Allebroke. So curteously and liberally he dealt with his souldiors, þt it was a ioy to them and a preferment to fight vnderneath him. His maner was in winning any towne, litle or nothing to reserue to himself, but to sparse þe whole spoile to his souldiors. One example in the author (whom I follow) is touched: MarginaliaA rare example of a liberal captaine to his soldiours.howe the foresaide Earle at the winning of the towne of Bryers, where he had graunted to euery soldior for hys bootie, the house wt all the implements therein, which he by victory should obtaine: among other his soldiors to one named Reh, fell a certaine house wt the implements thereof, wherein was contained the mint and mony coyned for that country, to the valure of a great substance: which when the soldior had found, in breaking vp a house, where first the grosse mettall was not yet perfectly wrought, he came to the Earle declaring to him the treasure, to know what his pleasure therein. To whome the Earle answered that the house was his, & whatsoeuer he found therein. Afterwarde the souldior finding a whole mint of pure siluer ready coyned, signified the same to the earle, for somuch as he thought such treasure to be to great for his portion, to whom the sayd Earl againe answering, declared MarginaliaThe liberall heart and constant voyce of a worthy captain.that hee had once geuen him the whole house, and that he had once geuen, he would not call backe againe as childrē vse to play. And therfore bad hym enioy that which was graūted to him: And if the mony were thrice as much it should be his owne: Ex chron. Albanens. Which story whither it was true or otherwise in those dayes, I haue not to affirm. But certes, if in these our couetous wretched daies nowe present, any author should reporte the like acte to be practised, I would hardly beleeue it to be true.

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MarginaliaThe Scots partly a meane of breaking truce.As the erl of Lancaster was thus occupied in Gascony the Scots were as busy here in England, wasting & spoy-ling without mercy. Which were thought (& not vnlike) to be set on by þe French king. And therfore was iudged both by that, & by other diuers wayes to haue broken the couenants of truce betwene him and the king of England.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1346.Wherfore þe next yere insuing. An. 1346. king Edward first sending his letters to the court of Rome, & therin cōplaining to the pope of Philip de Valois, how he had trāsgressed, and brokē the truce betwene them made, which by euidēt probations he there made manifest: 

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Outbreak of the Hundred Years War

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

MarginaliaThe 2. viage of K. Edw. into France.about the mōth of Iuly made hys voyage into Normandy in suche secrete wise, that no man wel knewe whether he intended. Where first he entred the towne of Hogs, from thence proceeded vnto Cardone. Where, about the 27. of Iuly by the riuer of Cardone he had a strong battel, MarginaliaThe battell at Cardoin. wt the Normands & other French men, which to stop hys passage, defended þe bridge. At the which battel were taken of the Lords of France, the erle of Ewe, the erle of Tankeruile. And of knights wyth other men of armes, to the number of an 100. of foote men 600. and the towne and suburbs beaten downe to the hard wals. And all that could be borne away transported to the shippes.

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A little before mention was made how the French K. began first to infringe the truce taken, and howe the Earle of Lancaster, vpō the same was sent vnto Gascony. Now for the more euidence of the matter cōcerning the falling of the French king from the league, and other his wrongs & vntrue dealing: It shal better in the kings letter appeare, who hearing word þt the Lord Philip de Valois (contrary to the forme of truce taken at Vanes) had apprehēded certaine of his nobles of Englande, and had brought them to Paris to be imprisoned & put to death: beside other slaughters and spoilings made in Britaine, Gascony, and other places moe. He therfore seing the truce to be broken of the French kings part, & being thereto of necessity compelled: In the yeare aboue prefixed, the 14. of the month of Iune, did publish and send abroad hys letter of defiance, containing thys effect.

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The kings letters of defiance against the French king.

MarginaliaThe kings letters of defiance against the French king.TO all and singular, to whom these presents shal come, publike greeting. We thinke it is not vnknowen vnto you all, that after the decease of Charles late king of Fraunce of famous memorie, brother to our redoubted Lady mother Quene Isabel, Quene of England. That the crowne of Fraunce, by iust inheritance hath fallen vnto vs, as to the next heire male now liuing after the sayd king. Nowe Phillip de Valoys, being sonne but only to the vncle of the foresayde king Charles, and therefore by degree of consanguinity being further of remoued from the same (we being in the time of our minoritie) hath violently by force and power cōtrary to God and iustice vsurped, occupied, and yet doth occupy the same inuading further and spoyling our landes in the Dukedome of Aquitania, and ioyning himselfe with our rebellious ennemies the Scots, seeking our subuersion both by land and by sea, to the vttermost of hys endeuour. And although wee to preuent the damages which might rise by warre, haue offred to the sayd Phillip diuers friendly waies of peace: to the entent we might better intend our purposed voyage against Christes enemies the Turkes: Yet could nothing preuaile with him in obtaining any peaceable way of reformation, driuing vs of by crafty dissimulatiō, through false pretensed wordes, but perfourming nothing with heart and dede. Whereuppon, wee not neglecting the grace and the gyft of God, to defend the right of our inheritāce, and to repulse the iniuries of our enemie, haue not refused by force of armes, cōming downe to Britanie to encounter with him in open fielde. And so wee being occupied in our warres, there repaired vnto vs the reuerend father bishop of Preuest, and of Tusculane Cardinals, and Legates from Pope Clement 6. to entreate some reformation of peace betweene vs. At whose request wee consented, agreeing to such formes and cōditions of peace as then were taken betwene vs, sending moreouer our Embassadours to the court of Rome, specially to intreat of the same matter. And thus while some hope of truce seemed betwene vs to appeare: Newes sodenly came vnto vs, which not a little astonied our minde, of the death of certaine of our nobles and adherents, whom the sayd Phillip vniustly, and cruelly at Paris commaunded to be executed. Beside the wasting and spoyling our lands and subiects in Britany, Gascony and other places: with innumerable wrongs and iniuries deceitfully intended against vs both by sea and land. By reason wherof, the truce on his part being notoriously broken, it is most manifest to haue bene lawfull for vs, forthwith to haue set vppon him with open warre. Yet notwythstanding to auoid those incommodities that come by warre, wee thought first to prooue, if by any gentle meanes some reformation might be had touching the premisses. And therfore sondry times, haue sent Embassadours to the Popes presence for the Treatyse of peace, and reformation to be had in those aforesaid excesses: requiring also for the tractation

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