Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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413 [389]

K. Edw. 3. Trouble betweene the K. and the P. Marsilius against the P. Ockam against the P.

same shoulde come to the ordinary of chapter thereof, or if they did not present, then to the Archbishop: if the Archbishoppe likewise did fayle to present, then the gyft to perteyne not to the Lord Pope but to the Kyng and hys heyres. An other complaynt was this that if Archbishops should be slack in geuing such benefices as properly pertayned to theyr owne patronage in due time, then the collation thereof likewise shoulde appertayne to the foresayd King and his heires. An other complaynt was that if the Pope shoulde make voyde any elections in the Church of England for any defect foūd therein, and so had placed some honest and discreete persons in the same, that then the King and his heires was not bounde to render the Temporaltyes vnto the partyes placed by the Popes prouision. Whereupon the Pope being not a little agrieued, the Kyng writeth vnto him certifying that he was misinformed, denying that there was any such statute made in that Parlyament. And further as touching all other thinges he woulde conferre with his Prelates and Nobles and thereof would returne aunswere by hys Legates.

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In the 20. yeare of his raigne an other letter was written to the Pope by the King, the effect whereof in few wordes to expresse, was this, to certify him that in respect of his great charges susteyned in hys warres, he hath by þe counsell of his Nobles taken into his owne handes the fruites and profites of all hys benefices here in England.

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To proceed in the order of yeares that in the 26. yeare. of this king one Nicholas Heath Clerke a busy headed body and a troubler of the Realme had procured diuers Byshops and others of the Kinges counsell to be cited vp to the Court of Rome there to answere such complayntes as he had made agaynst them: whereupon commaundement was geuen to the King to all the portes of the realme for the restraynt of all passingers out, and for searching and aresting all persons bringing in any Bulles or other proces from Rome tending to the derogation of the dignity of the crowne or molestation of the subiectes concerning which Nicholas Heath the King also writeth to the Pope his letters complayning of the sayd Heath and desiring him to geue no eare to his lewd complaynts.

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The same yeare the King writeth also to the Popes Legate resident in England requiring him to surcease from exacting diuers summes of money of the Clergy in the name of first fruites of benefices.

The 31. yeare of this Kinges reigne the King by hys letters complayneth to the Pope of a troublesome fellow named Nicholas Stanneway remaining in Rome, whiche by his slauderous complayntes procured diuers citations to be sent into the Realme, to the great disturbaunce of diuers and sundry honest men: whereupon he prayeth and aduiseth the Pope to stay himselfe and not to send ouer such hasty Citatiōs vpon euery light occasiō.

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To passe further to the 38. yeare of the same King thus we finde in the Rolles. That the King þe same yeare tooke order by two of his Clergy, to witte Iohn a Stocke and Iohn of Norton to take into their handes all the temporaltyes of all Deaneryes, Prebendes, Dignityes, and Benefices being then vacant in England and to answere the profites of the same to the Kinges vse.

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The same yeare an ordinaunce was made by the King and his Counsell and to the same proclaymed in all porte townes within the Realme, that good and diligent search should be made, that no person whatsoeuer comming frō the Court of Rome. &c. doe bring into the Realme with him any Bull, instrument, letters patentes, or other proces that may be preiudiciall to the King or any of his subiectes: nor that any person passing out of this Realme toward the Court of Rome doe cary with him any instrument or proces that may redound to the preiudice of the King or his subiectes: and that all persons passing to the sayd Court of Rome. &c. with the Kinges speciall license do notwithstanding promise and finde surety to the Lord Chauncellour, that they shall not in any wise attempt or pursue any matter to the preiudice of the King or his subiectes vnder payne to be put out of the Kinges protection and to forfeyt his body, goods, and Cattelles according to the statute thereof made Anno. 27.

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And thus much concerning the letters and writinges of the King with such other domesticall matters, perturbations, and troubles passing betwene him and the Pope taken out of the publique Recordes of the Realme, wherby I thought to geue the Reader to vnderstand the horrible abuses, the intollerable pride, and the vnsatiable auarice of that Byshop more like a proud Lucifer then a pastor of the Church of Christ, in abusing the king and oppressing his subiectes with exactions vnmeasurable: 

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Anti-papal writers

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

notonely exercising his tyranny in this Reaome, but raging also agaynst other Princes both farre and neare, emongst whom neither spared he the Emperour himselfe. In the story and actes of which Emperour Ludouicus mentioned a litle before, pag. 273. whom the Pope did most arrogantly excommunicate vpon maundy thursday, and the selfe same day placing an other Emperour in his roome. Relation was made of certayne learned men which tooke the Emperours part agaynst the Pope. In number of whom was Marsilius Patauinus, Guliermus Ockam, Ioannes Gandauensis, Luitpoldus, Andreas Landensis, Vlricus Hangenor treasurer to the Emperour, Dantes, Aligerius. &c. Of whom MarginaliaMarsilius Patauinus, author of the booke called Defensor pacis.Marsilius Patauinus compiled and exhibited vnto the Emperor Ludouike, a worthy worke intituled Defensor pacis: writtē in the Emperors behalfe agaynst the Pope. Wherin (both godly & learnedly disputing agaynst the Pope) he proueth, MarginaliaArticles of Marsilius against the Pope.all Bishops and Priestes to be equall: And that the Pope hath no superiority aboue other Bishops, much lesse aboue the Emperour. That the word of God ought to be onely the chiefe iudge in deciding and determining causes ecclesiastical: That not onely spiritual persons, but lay men also being godly and learned ought to be admitted into generall councels: That the Clergy and the Pope ought to be subiect vnto Magistrates: That the Church is the vniuersity of the faythfull, and that the foūdation and head of the Church is Christ, and that he neuer appoynted any vicar or Pope ouer his vniuersall church: That Bishops ought to be chosen euery one by their own Church and Clergy: That the mariage of Priestes may lawfully be permitted: That S. Peter was neuer at Rome: That the Clergy and Sinagoge of the Pope is a denne of theeues: That the doctrine of the Pope is not to be folowed, because it leadeth to destruction: And that the corrupt maners of the Christians doe spring and flow out of the wickednes of the spiritualty. &c. He disputeth moreouer in an other worke of free iustification by grace: And extenuated merits, saying MarginaliaMerites cause of saluation, sine qua non.that they are no causes efficient of our saluation, but onely sine qua non, that is to say, that workes be no cause of our iustification, but yet our iustificatiō goeth not without them. MarginaliaMarsilius condemned of the Pope.For the which his doctrine most sound and Catholicke, he was condemned by the Pope. an. 1324. by the Popes decree extrauagant, cap. Licet intra doctrinam. MarginaliaExtrau cap. Licet intra doctrinam. Concerning the which man and his doctrine: I thought good thus much to commit to history, to the entent men may see, that they which charge this doctrine now taught in the Church with the note of noueltye or newnes, how ignoraunt and vnskilfull they be in the historyes and order of times fore past.

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In the same part of condemnation at the same tyme, also was Ioannes de Gunduno. an. 1330. and contayned also in the foresayd Extrauagāt, with Marsilius Patauinus. Whiche Ioannes wrote much vpon Aristotle and Auerrois, and are yet remayning. And no doubt but he wrote also of diuinity, but not vnlike that these workes haue bene abolished.

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MarginaliaIoannes Gādenensis condemned by the popeIn the same number and cataloge, commeth also Guillermus Ockam, MarginaliaGuillermus Ockam, wrote against the pope. who was in the yeare of our Lord 1326. as is afore mentioned pag. 375. and wrote likewise in defence of Ludouicus the Emperour agaynst the Pope: and also in defence of Michael Generall of Grayfriers, MarginaliaMichael generall of the gray fryers excommunicated for an heretike.whom the Pope had excommunicated & cursed for an hereticke. Diuers treatises were by the sayd Ockam set forth, whereof some are extant and in print, as his questions & distinctions: some are extinct and suppressed (as Ascentius reporteth MarginaliaAscentionis in præfatione eius autoris.) quoòd essent aliquando asperiora. Some againe be published vnder no name of the author, being of his doing: as the dialogue betwene the souldiour and the clarke: MarginaliaThe dialogue betwene the souldier and the clarke, of Ockams making. wherin it is to be coniected, what bookes and workes this Ockam had collected agaynst the Pope. Of this Ockā Iohn Sledane in his history inferreth mention, to his great cōmendation, whose wordes be these: William Ockam in time of Ludouicus, 4. Emperor did florish, about the yere of our Lord 1326. who among other thinges wrote of the authority of the Bishop of Rome. In the which booke he handleth these 8. questions very copiously: MarginaliaEight questions disputed by Ocham.Whether both the administrations of the Bishops office, and of the Emperors may be in one man. 2. Whether the Emperour taketh his power and authority onely of God, or els of the Pope. 3. Whether the Pope and Church of Rome haue power by Christ, to set and place kinges and Emperors, and to commit to them theyr iurisdiction to be exercised. 4. Whether the Emperor being elected, hath full authority vpon the sayd his election, to administer his Empire. 5. Whether other kinges besides the Emperor and King of Romaines, in that they are consecrated of priestes, receiue of thē any part of their power. 6. Whether the sayd kings in any case be subiect to their cōsecrators. 7. Whether if the

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