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458 [434]

K. Richard. 2. The history of I. Wickliffe. A schisme in Rome. An edict against Wickliuistes.

to this second power, the Prelates are in an higher Maiestie, and regiment.

16. It is lawfull for Princes and Kynges (in cases by the law limited) to withdraw temporall commodities, from church men abusing the same, habitualiter.

The reason therof is playne for that temporall Lordes ought rather to leane to spirituall almes, which bryngeth with it greater fruite, then to corporall almes the case so standyng, that some tyme it were a necessary work of spirituall almes, to chastise such Clerkes by takyng from them their temporall liuinges, which vse to abuse the same to the damnifyeng both of their soule and body. The case, which the law doth limite in this matter, were the defect of correctyng his spirituall head or elles for lack of correctyng the fayth of the clerke which so offendeth, as appeareth. 16. q. 7. filijs. Dist. 40. cap. Si Papa. Marginalia16.q.7. filijs.

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27. Whether they be temporall Lordes, or any other men whatsoeuer, which haue endued any Church with temporalities. &c.

The truth thereof is euidently sinne, for that, nothying ought to stoppe a man frō the principall workes of charitie necessarily, because in euery action and worke of man is to be vnderstand a priuy condition necessary of God his good will concurring with all, as it is in the ciuill law de c. Conradi cap. 5. in fine collat. x. And yet God forbid, that by these wordes occasion should be geuen to the Lordes temporall to take away the goodes of fortune from the Church.

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18. An Ecclesiasticall minister, yea the Byshop of Rome may lawfully be rebuked of his subiectes, and for the profite of the Church be accused, either of the clergie, or of the laytie.

The proufe of this is manifest hereby, because the said Byshop of Rome is subiect to fall into the sinne agaynst the holy Ghost, as may be supposed, sauyng the sanctitude, humilitie and reuerence due to such a Father. For so long as our brother is subiect vnto the infirmitie of fallyng, he lyeth vnder the law of brotherly correction. And when the whole Colledge of Cardinals may be slouthfull in ministryng due correction for the necessary prosperitie of the Churche: it is apparent that the residue of the body of the Churche, which possibly may stand most of lay men, may wholesomely correct the same accuse and bryng him to a better way. The possibilitie of this case is touched. Dist. 40. Si Papa. If the Pope doe erre from the right fayth. &c. For like as such a great fall ought not to bee supposed in the Lorde Pope without manifest euidence: so agayne such an obstinacie ought not to be supposed in hym, possibly beyng fallen, but that bee will humbly receaue the wholesome medicine of his superiour, correctyng him in the Lord. The practise of whiche conclusion also is testified in many Chronicles. Farre be if from the Church of Christ that veritie should be condemned, which soundeth euill to trāsgressours and other slouthiull persons, for then the whole fayth of the Scripture were in a damnable case.

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Thus Iohn Wickleffe in geuyng his Exposition vnto his foresayd propositions and conclusions, as is aboue prefixed, through the fauour and diligence of the Londoners, either shifted of the Byshops, or elles satisfied them so that for that tyme he was dismissed and scaped clearely away; onely beyng charged and commaunded by the sayd Byshops, that he should not teach or preach any such doctrine any more, for the offence of the lay people.

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Thus this good man beyng escaped from the Bishops, with this charge aforesayd, yet notwithstandyng, ceased not to proceede in his godly purpose, labouryng and profityng still in the Church as he had begon.

MarginaliaThe death of Pope Gregory. 11. Vnto whom also (as it happeneth by the prouidence of God) this was a great helpe and stay, for that in the same yeare, or in the begynnyng of the next yeare folowyng, the foresayd Pope Gregory xi. whiche was the styrrer vp of all this trouble agaynst hym, turned vp hys heeles and dyed. 

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Foxe is taking his material on the pontificate of Urban VI from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 439-40 and 487.

After whom insued such a schisme in Rome, betwene two Popes, and other succeedyng after them, one striuyng agaynst an other: that the schisme thereof endured the space of. xxxix. yeares, vntil the tyme of the Councell of Constaunce.

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MarginaliaVrbanus. 6. Pope. The occasioner of whiche schisme first was Pope Vrbane the 6. who in the first begynnyng of hys Popedome was so proude and insolent to his Cardinals, and other, MarginaliaA schisme in to Dukes, Princes, and Queenes, and so set to aduaunce his Nephew and kyndred, with iniuries to other Princes, that the greatest number of his Cardinalles and Courtyours by litle and litle shronke from him, and set vp an other French Pope agaynst hym, named Clement, who reigned xi. yeares. And after hym Benedictus the 13. who reigned yeares 26. Agayne of the contrary side after Vrbanus the sixth succeeded, Boniface the ninth, Innocentius the viij. Gregorius the xij. Alexander the fift,, Iohn 13.

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¶ Papæ,yeares.month.¶ Antipapæ.yeares.
Bonifacius. 9.14.9.Benedictus. 13.26.
Innocentius. 8.2.0.
Gegorius, 12.2.7
Alexander 5.0.11
Iohannes. 13.5.10

As touching thys pestilent & most miserable schisme, it would require heere an other Ileade to comprehend in order all the circumstaunce and tragicall partes thereof, what trouble in the whole Church, what partes taking in euery countrey, what apprehending and imprysoning of priests & prelates, takē by land and sea, what sheddyng of bloud did folow therof. How Ottho duke of Brynsewyke & Prince of Tarentum, was taken and murthered. Howe Ioane Queene of Hierusalem and Sicilia his wife, who before had sent to Pope Vrbane, beside other gifts at hys coronation, xl. M. Duckets in pure gold: after by the sayd Vrbane was committed to prison, and in the same pryson strangled. What Cardinalles were racked, and miserably wythout all mercy tormented on gibbettes to death, what slaughter of men, what battails were fought betwene the two Popes, whereof 5000. on the one side were slaine, beside the number of them which were taken prisoners. MarginaliaWas not here a ioly agreement? Of the beheading of 5. cardinals together after long tormēts, and how the bishop of Aquilonensis, being suspected of pope Vrbane, for not riding faster with the Pope, his horse being not good, was there slaine by the Popes commaundement, sending his soldiours vnto him, to slay him, and cut hym in peeces. All whych things, with other diuers moe acts of horrible cruelty, happening in the time of thys abhominable schisme, because they are aboundantly discoursed at full, by Theodorike Niem, MarginaliaTheodo. icus a Niem. de schsmate.who was neare to the sayde Pope Vrbane, and present at all his doings: therefore as a thing needlesse, I here pretermit, referring them who couet to be certified more amply herein, vnto the 3. bookes of the sayd Theodorike aboue mentioned. 

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Foxe very probably took these brief mentions of the death of Archbishop Sudbury and of the succession of William Courtenay to his see, from Arundel 7 (see Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, Rolls Series 28, 2 vols. [London, 1863-4], I, p. 461 and II, p. 49).

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MarginaliaRebellion in England by Iakce Strawe. About the same time, also about 3. yeres after, there fel a cruell dissention in England, betwene the common people and the nobilitie, the which did not a little disturbe and trouble the common wealth. MarginaliaSimon the Archb. beheaded.In thys tumult, Symon of Sudbury Archbyshop of Canterbury, was taken by the rustical & rude people, and was beheaded. MarginaliaW. Courtney Archb. of. Cant.In whose place after, succeeded William Courtney, which was no lesse diligent then his predecessor had ben before him, in doing his diligence to roote out heretickes. Notwithstanding, in the meane season Wickleffes secte increased priuely, and daily grewe to greater force, 

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Foxe's account of Berton's persecution of Wiclif and his followers is taken from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum (Bodley Library MS, Musaeo 86, fos. 36r-39v).

MarginaliaBarton Chauncelour of Oxford. Anno. 1380.vntill the time that William Barton Vicechancellor of Oxford, about the yeare of our Lord 1380. had the whole rule of that vniuersitie: who callyng together 8. monastical doctors, and 4. other, with the consent of the rest of hys affinitie, putting the common seale of the vniuersitie vnto certaine wrytings: he set foorth an Edict, declaring vnto euery man, and threatning them vnder a greeeuous penaltie, that no men should be so hardie, hereafter to associate thēselues wyth any of Wickliffs fautors or fauourers: and vnto Wickliffe himselfe, he threatned the greater excommunication, and farther imprisonment, and to all his fautors, vnles that they after 3. dayes canonical admonitiō or warning, or as they cal it, peremptory, did repent & amend. MarginaliaAn edict against the Wicliuistes.The which thing whē Wickliffe vnderstood, forsaking the pope & all the clergy, he thought to appeale vnto the kings maiestie: but the Duke of Lancaster comming betweene, forbad hym that he shoulde not heereafter attempt or begin any such matters, but rather submit himselfe vnto the censure and iudgement of his ordinary. Whereby Wickliffe being beset wyth troubles and vexations, as it were in the middest of the waues, he was forced once againe to make cōfession of his doctrine: in the whych his confession, to auoid the rigor of things, he aunswered as is aforesaide, making his declaration, and qualifying his assertions after such a sorte, that he did mitigateand asswage the rigor of hys enemies.

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MarginaliaAnno 1382. The next yere after, 

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Earthquake synod [1382]

Foxe's account of the Blackfriars council and his printing of the condemned articles of John Wiclif came from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum. This material was first published in the Commentarii (fos. 27r-29v) and reprinted in the Rerum (pp. 13-14) as well as all editions of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe also added two stories concerning near-miraculous events associated with Wiclif to the Rerum (p. 13); these stories were reprinted in the 1563 edition and then deleted. In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added additional material from the Fasciculi Zizaniorum and from the register of Archbishop William Courtney.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

whych was 1382. by the commandement of William Arch. of Cant. there was a conuocation holden at London, where as Iohn Wickliffe was also commanded to be present. But whether he there appeared personally, or not, I find it not in story certainly affirmed 
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In fact, Wiclif was not present at the Blackfriars council.

. The mandate of Archb. Wil. Courtney (sent abrode for the conuenting together of this councell) heere followeth vnder wrytten, truely copied out of his owne registers. 
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Foxe's source for this document is indeed Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fo. 25r.

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MarginaliaThe mandate of the Archb. Memorandum, that where as well amongest the nobles as commons of this realme of England, there hath a certain brute ben spread of diuers cōclusions both errone-

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