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Czech Republic

Coordinates: 49° 34' 0" N, 17° 52' 60" E

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NGR: NGR: SO 855 554

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the county of Worcester, of which it is the capital. Seat of the Bishopric of Worcester. 111 miles north west by west from London. The City comprises the parishes of St Alban, All Saints, St Andrew, St Clement, St Helen, St Martin, St Nicholas, St Peter and St Swithin. All in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. St Alban is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; All Saints is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Crown; St Andrew is a discharged vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Clement is a discharged rectory in the same patronage; St Helen is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Nicholas is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Martin is a rectory in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Peter is a vicarage in the same patronage; and St Swithin is a discharged rectory in the same patronage.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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531 [507]

K. Richard. 2. Queene Anne. Thomas Arundell. Conclusions put vp to the parliament.

Cuius est exordium. Anno gratiæ millesimo. &c.

Thus may it appeare by this and other aboue recited, how the Gospel of Christ preached by Iohn Wickleffe and others, began to spread & fructifie abroad in London, and other places of the realme: and more would haue done no dout, had not William Courtney, the Archbishop & other Prelates with the king, set them so foreceably with myght & maine, to gainstand the course therof. Albeit as is sayde before, MarginaliaFew or none burned in K. Richardes time.I finde none which yet were put to death therfore, duing the raigne of this king Richard the second. Wherby it is to be thought of this king, that although he cānot be utterly excused for molesting the godly & innocent prea chers of that time, (as by his brieues & letters afore mentioned may appeare) yet neither was hee so cruell against them, as other that came after him: And that which he dyd seemed to procede by the instigation of the Pope and other Byshops, rather then either by the consent of his Parliament, or aduise of his coūsail about him, or els by his own nature. For as the decrees of þe parliament in all his time, were constant in stopping out the Popes prouisions, & in bridling his authority as we shall see (Christ willing) anone: so þe nature of the king was not altogether so fiersly set, if that he following the guiding thereof, had not stand so much in feare of the Bishop of Rome and his Prelates, MarginaliaKings many tymes brought in two much feare of the Pope. by whose importune letters & calling on, he was cōtinually vrged, to do contrary to that, which both right required, & wil perhaps in him desired. But howsoeuer the doings of this king are to be excused, or not, vndoubted it is þt Queene Anne hys wife most rightly deserueth singulare commendation: MarginaliaCommēdation of Queene Anne wife to king Richard. who at the same time liuing with þe kyng had the gospels of Christ in English, wt 4. doctours vpon the same. This Anne was a Bohemian borne, and sister to Wincelaus K. of Boheme before: who was maryed to king Richarde about the 5. (some say, the 6.) yeare of hys reigne, and continued wt hym the space of 11. yeres. MarginaliaAnno. 1394 By the occasion whereof it may seeme not vnprobable, þt the Bohemians comming in wyth her, or resorting into thys realme after her, perused and receiued heere the bookes of Iohn Wickleffe, which afterward they conueied into Bohemia, MarginaliaThe mariage of Queene Anne to K. Richard. The occasiō how the doctrine of Wickliffe came to Bohemia. wherof partly mention is made before, pag. 464.

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MarginaliaThe death of Queene Anne. Ex fragmento Libri cuiusdam Wigornēsis bibliothecæ. Ex accommodato D. Math. Archb. Can. Queen Anne had the 4. Gospels, with the Doctors in Englishe.The said vertuous Queene Anne, after shee had liued with king Richarde about 11. yeares, in the 17. yeare of hys reigne changed this mortall life, and was buried at Westminster. At whose funeral, Thomas Arundel then Archb. of Yorke, and Lorde Chauncelour, made the Sermon. 

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As Foxe declares, he obtained this sermon from a manuscript in Durham cathedral library, which he obtained from Matthew Parker.

In which Sermon (as remaineth in the library of Worceter recorded) he entreating of the commendation of her, sayde these wordes: that it was more ioy of her, then of any woman that euer hee knewe. For notwithstanding that shee was an alien borne, she had in English all the 4. gospels, wt the Doctours vpon them: affirming moreouer and testifying, þt she had sent the same vnto him to examine. And he sayde they were good and true. And further wyth many wordes of praise did greatly commend her, in that she being so great a Lady, & also an alien, would study so lowly so vertuous bookes. And he blamed in that sermon sharply the negligence of the Prelates, & other men. In so much that some sayd, he would on the morow leaue vp the office of Chauncelour, and forsake the world, & geue him to fulfil his pastoral office, for that he had seene and read in those bookes. And then it had bene the best Sermon that euer they heard. Hæc ex libro Wygo. In the whiche Sermon of Thomas Arundell, three poynts are to be considered, first the laudable vse of those olde times receaued to haue the Scripture and Doctours in our vulgare English toung. Secondly, the vertuous exercise and also example of thys godly Lady, who had these bookes not for a shew hanging at her girdle: but also seemeth by this Sermon to be a studious occupier of the same. The third thing to be noted is, what fruit the sayde Thomas Archbyshoppe declared also himselfe to receiue at the hearing and reading of the same bookes of hers in the English toung. MarginaliaTho. Arundell, Arch. breaketh his owne promise.Notwythstanding, the same Thomas Arundel, after this Sermone and promise made, became the most cruell enemy that might be against English bookes, and the authors therof as foloweth after in his story to be seene.

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For shortly after the death of Queen Anne, the same yere (the king being then in Irelād) this Thomas Arundel Archb. of Yorke, and Byshop of London, Rob. Braybrocke (whether sent by the Archb. of Cant. and the clergy, or whether going of their owne accorde) crossed the seas to Ireland, MarginaliaTho. Arundell and the B. of Lōdon, go to Irelād to the King to complain of the fauorers of Gods worde. to desire the king in all spedy wise to returne and help the faith and church of Christ, against such as holding of Wickleffes teaching, went about (as they sayde) to subuert al their procedings, and to destroy the canonical sanctions of their holy mother church. At whose complaint the king hearing the one part speake, and not aduising theother, was in such sorte incensed: that incontinent leauing all his affaires incomplete, he spedde his returne towarde England. Where he kept his Christmas at Dublin, in the which meane time, in the beginning of the next yere following, which was Anno 1395. MarginaliaEx histor. D. Albans. Anno. 1395. a Parliament was called at Westminster, by the commaundement of the Kyng. In which parliament, certaine Articles or Conclusions were put vp by them of the Gospell side, to the number of 12. 

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Book of Conclusions

The 'book of Conclusions' or The Twelve Conclusions, as they are more generally known, were posted to the doors of Westminster Hall and also St. Paul's in London during the session of Parliament in the first months of 1395. Foxe's source for the background to these events was the brief account in College of Arms MS Arundel 7 (a version of Thomas of Walsingham's Chronica majora - see Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-4], II, P. 216). Foxe drew on the Latin version of this text in the Fasciculi Zizanniorum (see Bodley MS e Musaeo 86, fos. 87r-89r), which was reprinted exactly in the Commentarii (fos. 108-115v) and the Rerum (pp. 76-9). The points contained in The Twelve Conclusions - attacks on clerical wealth, compulsory clerical celibacy, the 'feigned miracle' of transubstantiation, prayers for the dead, pilgrimages and auricular confession - caused Foxe no discomfort and, as a result, his versions of the text follow this close quite closely, apart from minor deletions to the last conclusion. The conclusions were translated in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, Foxe collated this version with a version of one of the copies of Roger Dymmock's Liber contra duodecim errores et hereses Lollardorum. The 1570 version of the twelve articles was reprinted, without change, in 1576 and 1583.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaConclusiōs offred vp in the parliament house. Which Conclusions moreouer were fastened vp vpon the church doore of S. Paule in London, and also at Westminster: The copie of which Conclusions with the words and contents thereof, here vnder ensueth.

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¶ The booke of Conclusions, or Reformation, exhibited to the Parliament holden at London, and set vp at Paules doore and other places, in the 18. yeare of the raigne of king Richard the 2. & in the yere of our Lord. 1395.

MarginaliaConclusions exhibited in the parliament.THe first conclusion, when as the Church of Englande began first to dote in tēporalities after her stepmother the great church of Rome, & the churches were authorised by appropriations: faith, hope and charitie began in diuers places to vanish and flie away from our Churche, for so much as pride with her most lamentable and dolerous genealogie of mortall and deadly sinnes, did chalenge that place by title of heritage, and this conclusion is generall and approued by experiēce, custome and maner, as ye shall after heare.

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MarginaliaPapisticall priesthood.The second conclusion, þt our vsuall Priesthode which tooke his originall at Rome, & fained to be a power higher then aungels, is not that Priesthoode which Christ ordeyned vnto his disciples. This cōclusion is thus proued, forso much as the Romish priesthod is done with signes and pontificall rites and ceremonies, and benedictions, of no force & effect, neither hauing any ground in scripture, for so much as the Bishops ordinall and the new Testament do nothing at all agree, neither do we see that the holy Ghost doth geue any good gift through any such signs or ceremonies: because that he together with all noble & good giftes, cannot cōsist and be in any person wyth deadly sinne. The corolary or effect of this conclusion is, that it is a lamentable and dolorous mockerye vnto wise men, to see the Byshops mocke & play with the holy Ghost in the geuing of their orders: because they geue crowns for their characters and markes, in sted of white hartes, & this caracter is the marke of Antichrist, brought into the holy Church to cloke and colour their idlenesse.

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MarginaliaThe single life of priestes.The third conclusion, that the law of chastity enioyned vnto priesthode, the which was first ordeined to the preiudice of women, induceth Sodomy into the church: but we doe excuse vs by the Bible, because the suspect decree doeth say, that we should not name it. MarginaliaHe doth very excellently paint out the lecherous clergie. Both reason & experience proueth this cōclusion. Reason thus, forsomuch as the delicate feeding and fare of the Clergy, will haue either a naturall purgation, or some worse. Experience thus, for somuch as the secrete triall and proofe of suche men is, þt they do delite in women. And whensoeuer thou doest rpooue or see such a man, marke him well, for he is one of þe number. The corolarie of this conclusion is, that these priuate religions with the beginners therof, ought most chiefly to be disanulled as the original of þt sinne and offence: MarginaliaHe prophecieth agaynst mōkery. But God of hys might, doth of priuie sinnes send open vengeance.

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The fourth conclusion, that most harmeth the innocent people is this: MarginaliaThe fayned myracle of transubstantiation. that the fained miracle of the Sacrament of bread, induceth al men, except it be a very few, vnto idolatry: For somuch as they thinke that the body whych shall neuer bee oute of heauen, is by the vertue of the Priestes wordes essentially included in the little breade, the which they doe shewe vnto the people. But woulde to God they would beleeue that which the MarginaliaHe meaneth here WickliffeEuangelicall Doctour teacheth vs in his Trialoge, Quòd panis altaris est accidentaliter Corpus Christi. i. that the breade of the aulter is the body of Christ accidentally: for so muche as wee suppose that by that meanes, euery faithful man and woman in the law of God, may make the Sacrament of that bread without auy such miracle. The corolarie of this conclusion is, that albeit the body of Christ, be endowed wt the eternal ioy, the seruice of Corpus Christi made by Frier Thomas, MarginaliaThe feast of Corpus Christi inuented by Tho. not true, but painted ful of false miracles, neither is it any maruell: for so much as frier Thomas at that time taking part with the Pope, would haue made a myracle of a hens egge, and we knowe it very well that euery lie openly preached and taught, doth turne to the rebuke & opprobry of him whych is alwayes true without any lacke.

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The 5. conclusion is this, that the exorcisme & halowings, consecrations, and blessings ouer the Wine, Bread,

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