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Prague (Praha) [Parga]
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Prague (Praha) [Parga]

Bohemia, Czech Republic

Coordinates: 50° 5' 0" N, 14° 25' 0" E

577 [553]

K. Henry. 4. The P. periured. The counsell of Pise. The popes bulles. I. Husse.

and title, and his Cardinals in like maner to cōdescend to the other Cardinals of Rome. So that both these two colledges of Cardinals agreeing together: one chiefe byshop might be chosen and takē out of them both, to be made the true Pope. Prouided moreouer, that none should seeke any releasement or absolution from the sayd promise, vow, and bond, once passed among them: Vnto al which things furthermore, euery one subscribed with his hande. These things thus prefixed and ratified vpon the same, they proceeded to þe election. In whych was chosen Gregorius the xij. who the same day of hys election, in the presence of all the cardinals: confirmed the vow, sacrament and promise made, subscribing the same with his hand in forme as followeth. MarginaliaThe oth and vow of pope Gregory. 12.And I Gregorie, thys day being the last of Nouember, in the yeare of our Lorde 1407, chosen and elected for bishop of Rome: do sweare, vowe, and promise, & confirme all the premisses aboue contained. &c. Thys being done, shortly after he was crowned, being of the age of 80. yeares. As the time thus passed, the people and Cardinals were in great expectation, waiting when the Pope according to his othe would geue ouer, wyth the other pope also. And not long after, the matter began in deede betwene the two Popes to be attempted, MarginaliaEx Chron. D. letters from one to another: assigning both day and place, where and whē they should meete together: but yet no effect did folow.

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MarginaliaThe pope falsely periured.This so passing on, great murmuring was among the Cardinals, to see their holy periured father, so to neglecte his othe, and vow aforenamed. MarginaliaCardinals leaue the periured pope.In so much, that at length, diuers of them did forsake the Pope, as being periured (as no lesse he was) sending moreouer to kings and princes of other lands, for their counsell and assistance therein, to appease the schisme. Amongest the rest, Cardinall Bituriensis was sent to the king of Englande: who publishing diuers propositions and cōclusions (remaining in the registers of Thomas Arundell) disputeth, that the pope ought to be subiect to lawes and councels. MarginaliaAnn. 1409.Then K. Henry (moued to write to Gregory the pope) directed his letter here vnder ensuing, which was the yeare of our Lorde. 1409. The contentes of the letter be these.

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The letter of king Henry the fourth, to Pope Gregory 12.

MarginaliaKing Henry 4. to pope Gregory. 12.MOst blessed father, if the discrete prouidence of the Apostolike sea, would call to mind, with what great pearils the vniuersall world hath ben damnified hetherto, vnder pretēce of thys present schisme: and especially would consider, Marginalia2. hundred thousand slaine by schisme of Rome.what slaughter of Christen people to the number of two hūdreth thousand (as they say) hath bene throughe the occasion of warre raised vp in diuers quarters of the world, and now of late, to the number of thirty M. souldiours Marginalia30 thousād slaine in campe fighting for the bishoprick of Leodium. which haue bene slaine through the dissention moued about the Bishopricke of Leodium, betwene two set vp, one by the authoritie of one Pope the other by the authoritie of the other Pope, fighting in campe for the title of that Bishoprike: Certes yee would lament in spirite, & be sore greeued in minde for the same. So that, with good conscience you wold relinquish rather the honour of the sea Apostolike, then to suffer such horrible bloudshed heereafter to ensue, vnder the cloake of dissimulation, followinge herein the example of the true mother in the booke of kings: who pleading before Salomon for the right of her childe, rather would depart from the childe, then the childe should bee parted by the sword. And although it may be vehemently suspected by the new creation of 9. Cardinals, by you last made contrary to your othe (as other men do say) that you do but little heede or care for ceasing the schisme: Yet farre be it from the hearing and noting of the world, that your circumspect seat shoulde euer be noted & distained with such an inconstancie of minde: whereby the last errour may be worse, then the first. Ex Chron. D. Albani. part. 2.

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¶ King Henry the 4. to the Cardinals.

MarginaliaKing Henry 4. to the Cardinals.ANd to the Cardinalles likewise, the sayde King directeth an other letter wyth these contentes heere following: Wee desiring to shewe what zeale wee haue had and haue, to the reformation of peace of the Churche: by the consent of the states of the Realme, haue directed to the Byshop of Rome our letters after the tenoure of the copie herewith in these presentes enclosed, to bee executed effectually. Wherefore, we seriously beseeche your reuerende colledge, that if it chaunce the sayde Gregory to be present at the councell of Pise, MarginaliaConcilium Pisanum.and to render vp hys Popedome, according to your desire, and hys owne othe: you then so ordaine for hys state totally, that chiefly God may be pleased therby, and that both the sayde Gregory, and also wee which loue intierly hys honor and commodity, may haue cause to geue you worthely condigne thankes for the same. Ibid.

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This being done in the yere of our Lorde 1409. after- MarginaliaEx chro. D. Albani.ward in the yere next folowing, an. 1410. 

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Persecution of Lollards and Hussites

For the next few pages, Foxe weaves together two separate strands of material. The first is an account of Alexander V summoning Jan Hus to Rome, and then, when Hus refusd to comply, the pope's ordering the archbishop of Prague to ban all pro-Wiclifite writings in Bohemia and finally of Hus's denunciation of the papal order. All this material came from Johannes Cochlaeus's history of the Hussite wars. (See Johannes Cochlaeus, Historiae Hussitarum [Mainz, 1549], pp. 19-21). The second strand of material is a series of episodes where fourteenth-century English bishops were demonstrating what, to Foxe, was intolerable arrogance in insisting upon either outward deference (such as the having bulls rung in their honour on visitations) or enforcing their tithes and rents with ecclesiastical sanctions such as penance. Foxe took these instances from various archiepiscopal registers. Archbishop Arundel's letter authorizing an indulgence of 40 days to everyone who said five Pater and Aves at the morning bells, is taken from bishop Reginald Braybook's register (London Guildhall Library MS 9531/3, fo. 303A-B). Arundel's commission to suspend certain London churches is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 392A and his mediation between the bishop of Worcester and his prior is from Lambeth Palace Library, Arundel Register I, fol. 441A. Archbishop Chichele's letter to the abbot of St. Alban's is taken from his register. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-7], IV, p. 278). Courtney's penance, imposed upon his defaulting tenants, is taken from Lambeth Palace Library, Courtney Register, fol. 337B. This material first appeared in the 1570 edition and was reprinted, without change, in subsequent editions.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaAnno. 1410.the Cardinals of both the Popes, to witte of Gregorius, and Benedictus: By common aduise assembled together at the citie of Pise, MarginaliaConcilium Pisanum.for the reformation of vnity and peace in the Church. The the which assembly, a great multitude of Prelates and bishops being conuented, a newe Pope was chosen, MarginaliaPope Alexander. 5.named Alexander 5. But to thys election, neither Gregorius, nor Benedictus did fully agree. Marginalia3. popes togeather.Whereby there were 3. Popes together in the Romaine churche (that is to vnderstande) not 3. crownes vpon one Popes head, but 3. heads in one Popish churche together. This Alexander being newly made pope, scarcely had well warmed his triple crowne: but straight geueth out full remission, not of a fewe, but of all maner of sinnes whatsoeuer: to all them that conferred any thing to the monastery of s. Bartlemew by Smithfield resorting to the saide church any of these dayes following: to wit, on Maundy thursday, good Friday, Easter euen, the feast of the Annunciation, from the first euēsong to the latter. MarginaliaThe vaine remissiō by the popes indulgence.But thys Pope which was so liberall in geuing remission of many yeares to other, was not able to geue one yere of life to himselfe: MarginaliaPope Alexander dead.for within the same yere he died. MarginaliaPope Iohn 23.In whose stead stept vp Pope Iohn 23.

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MarginaliaEx Ioā. Chocleo De Historia Hußiarū. lib. 1.In the time of this Alexander, great stirre began in the country of Bohemia, by the occasion of the bokes of Iohn Wickliffe, which then comming to the hands of I. Husse, and of other both men & women, especially of the lay sort, and artificers, began there to doe much good. MarginaliaThe Gospell beginneth to take roote in Bohemia.In so much, that diuers of them not onely men, but women also, partly by reading of those bookes translated into their tounge, partly, by the setting forwarde of Iohn Husse, a notable learned man, and a singulare preacher at that time in the vniuersitye of Prage: where in short time so ripe in iudgement, and prompt in the scriptures, þt they began to moue questions, yea and to reason wyth the Priestes, touchyng matters of the Scriptures.

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MarginaliaThe letter of pope Alexāder 5. to the Archbish. Swinco of Bohemia.By reason wherof, complaint was brought to the sayd Pope Alexander the fifte, who caused eftsoones the forenamed Iohn Husse to bee cyted vp to Rome. But when hee came not at the Popes citation, then the sayde Pope Alexander addressed hys letters to the Archbyshop of Suinco. Wherein he straightly charged him to prohibit and forbid, by the authority Apostolicall, all manner of preachings or sermons to be made to the people, but onely in Cathedrall Churches or Colledges, or Parish churches, or in Monasteries, or els in theyr Churchyardes. And that the articles of Wickliffe, shoulde in no case of any person of what state, condition or degree so euer, be suffered to be holdē, taught or defended, eyther priuily or apertlye. Commaunding moreouer and charging the sayde Archbyshop, that wyth foure Bachelers of Diuinitie, and two Doctours of the Canon lawe ioyned vnto hym: would proceede vpon the same, and so prouide that no person in churches, schooles, or any other place, should teach, defend, or approoue any of the foresayd Articles. MarginaliaThe Popes cruell bull against Iohn Husse.So that who so euer should attempt the contrary, should be accounted an hereticke. And vnles he shall reuoke solemnly and publikely the sayde articles, and shall for euer abiure the bookes wherein the foresayde articles be contained, so that they may be vtterly abolished out from the eyes of the faithfull: the same to be apprehended and imprisoned, all appellation set apart, the help also of the secular arme being called thereunto, if nede shall require. &c. These were the contentes of this mighty & fierce bull of Pope Alexander.

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MarginaliaIhon Husse obiecteth against the popes cruell Bull.Against the whych bull on the other side Iohn Husse iustly complaining, excepteth againe and obiecteth manye things, as appeareth in his boke intituled De Ecclesia. cap. 18. Where he delareth thys mandate of the pope to stande directly against the doings and sayings both of Christ and of his Apostles: MarginaliaThe popes Bull cōtrary to christ.Considering, how Christ himself preached to the people, both in the sea, in the desert, in fields, in houses, in synagoges, in villages: and the Apostles also in all places did the same, the Lord mightely working wt them. He declared moreouer, the said mandate or bul of the pope to redound vnto the great detriment of the church, in binding the word of God, that it might not haue his free passage. Also, the same to be preiudicial vnto chappels newly erected for the word of God to be preached in them. Wherfore (sayeth he) from thys commanndement or mandate of Pope Alexander, I did appeale vnto the sayd Alexander, being better informed and aduised. MarginaliaThe notable iudgement of God in striking the aduersaries of the Gospell.And as I was persecuting my appeale, the Lord Pope (sayth Iohn Husse) immediately died.

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Then the Archbishop of Suinco aforesayde, to whome this present bul was directed, whē he saw the proces, buls and mandates of the bishop of Rome, to be thus cōtemned of Iohn Husse, and hys fellows, neyther hauing any hope of redresse in Winceslaus the king: which semed to neglect

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