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FleetHorselydown [Horsaldowne] Lane
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Prison on the east bank of the River Fleet, London

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Horselydown [Horsaldowne] Lane

Bermondsey, London

663 [639]

K. Henry. 5. The story of J. Claydon, and Richard Turming martyres.

willing) afterward returne to the tractation hereof, to prosecute the troubles and conflictes of the Bohemians, with other things before perteyning to the latter end of the coūcell of constance, and chosing of Pope Martin, as the order of yeares and time shall require.

Ye heard before pag. 588. MarginaliaVid supra. pag. 588. how after the death of Thomas Arundell Archb. of Caunt. succeeded Henry Chichesley. MarginaliaHenry Chichesley Archb. of Cant. an. 1414. and sate 25. yeres. In whose time was much trouble and great affliction of good mē here in England: of whom many were compelled to abiure, some we burned, diuers were driuē to exile. Wherof partly now to entreat, as we finde them in registers & historyes recorded, we will first begin with Iohn Claydon Currier of Londō, & Richard Turming, whom Rob. Fabian, doth falsly affirm to be burned in the yeare wherein Syr Roger Acton and M. Browne suffered: who in decd suffered not before the secōd yeare of Henry Chichesley being Archb. of Caunt. whiche was an. 1413. The history of which Iohn Claydon, in the Registers is thus declared.

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The story of Iohn Claydon Currier, and of R. Turming Baker. 
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John Claydon and  Richard Turming, death of Oldcastle

In the Commentarii (fo. 62v), Foxe had a brief account of 'William' Claydon, which describes him being burned in 1414 as a heretic. This brief, account, including the erroneous first name of the victim, was taken from College of Arms MS Arundel 7. (See Thomas of Walsingham, Historia Anglicana, ed. H. T. Riley, 2 vols., Rolls Series 28 [London, 1863-64], II, p. 307). In the Rerum (p. 60), Foxe repeated this account, although he corrected Claydon's first name to John. Later in the Rerum (p. 109), however, Foxe gave an account of the burning of John Claydon and Richard Turmyn, for which he cited Fabyan's chronicle as the source. (And, in fact, was clearly did draw this information from Fabyan; see Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10664, p. 390). In the 1563 edition, Foxe dropped the brief entry taken from Walsingham and reprinted the notice taken from Fabyan. In 1570, Foxe greatly expanded his account of the unfortunate pair by drawing on the register of Archbishop Chichele for Claydon's background, trial and examination. (See The Register of Henry Chichele, ed. E. F. Jacob, 4 vols. [Oxford, 1943-47], IV, pp. 132-8). He also printed Arcbishop Chichele's proclamation against the Lollards from the same source (Chichele Register, III, pp. 18-19). Foxe also delved deeply into Chichele's register for other accounts of accused heretics being imprisoned, questioned and being forced to recant (Chichele Register III, pp. 15-16, 25, 44, 187- 208 and IV, pp. 138-40, 155-8, 192-3, 203-4 and 297-301). Claydon and Turmyn were the only accused heretics among this group who were executed, but these additional episodes, no matter how inconsequential, provided evidence that there were members of the True Chuch before Luther and that the Catholic clergy were zealous in persecuting them. It should also be remembered that the episodes Foxe lists (although Foxe does not make this clear) extended over thirteen years.

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Foxe intensified the theme of persecution by recording, with these other prosecutions, the arrest and execution of Sir John Olcastle. In the 1563 edition this consisted of an account of these events, previously printed in the Rerum (pp. 106-7), which was based on The Chronicle of Fabian (pp. 390 and 389 [recte 397]). To this Foxe added the account of Oldcastle's execution, which was taken from John Bale, A brefe Chronycle concerning the examination and death of the blessed martir of Christ sir Johan Oldcastel (London, 1548?), STC 1278, sigs F8v-G1r. In the 1570 edition, however, Foxe replaced this account of Oldcastle's martyrdom with a defence of him against the charge made by Nicholas Harpsfield that Oldcastle had been a traitor.

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There were no further changes made to any of this material in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaThe historie of I. Claidō skinner of London, & of Robert Turming Baker. Ex regist. Cant.THe 17. of August 1415. did personally appeare I. Claydon Currier of London (arrested by the Mayor of the sayd City for the suspition of heresy) before Henry Archbishop of Caunterbury, in Saynt Paules Church: whiche Iohn (being obiected to him by the Archbishop, MarginaliaI. Claidon examined.that in þe City of London & other places of the prouince of Canterbury, he was suspected by diuers godly and learned mē for heresy, and to be contrary to the catholick fayth, and determinatiō of the church) did openly confesse and denyed not, but that he had bene for the space of xx. yeres, suspected both about the City of London, & also in the prouince of Caunt. and specially of the common sort for Lollardy and heresy, & to be contrary to the catholick fayth and determination of the church of Rome, and defamed of the same all the tyme aforesayd.

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In so much that in the time of M. Robert Braybrooke B. of London deceased, MarginaliaI. Claydon first imprisoned by R. Braybroke Bishop of London.he was for the space of two yeares commaunded to the prison of Conwey, for the foresayd defamation and suspition, and for the same cause also he was in prison in the fleete for 3. yeares. Out of which prison he (in the raigne of King Henry the 4.) was brought before Lord Iohn Scarle then Chauncellor to the king, MarginaliaI. Claidon before abiured.& there did abiure all heresy and errour. And the sayd Iohn Claydon being asked of the sayd Archbishop whither he did abiure the heresye of which he was suspect before any other: did confesse that in a Conuocation at London in Paules Church before Thomas Arundell late Archbishop deceased, he did abiure all such doctrine which they called heresy and error contrary to the Catholick fayth and determination of the Church, and that he had not onely left such articles and opiniōs, wherin he was defamed, but also did abstaine from all company that were suspected of such opinions so that he should neither geue ayd, helpe, councell, nor fauor vnto them.

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And moreouer, the sayd Iohn was asked by the sayde Archbishop, whether he euer had in his house since his abiuration, in his keeping, any bookes written in Englishe. MarginaliaEnglishe bookes. Wherunto he confessed that he would not deny, but that he had in his house, and in his keeping many english bookes: for he was arested by the Mayor of the city of London, for such bookes as he had, whiche bookes (as he thought) were in the Mayors keping. Vpon the which, the Mayor did openly conofesse that he had such bookes in his keping, MarginaliaThe iudgement of the Maior of London.which in his iudgement were the worst and the most peruerse that euer he did read or see, and one booke that was well bound in red leather of partchment, written in a good english hand: and among the other bookes found with the said Iohn Claydon, the Mayor gaue vp the sayd booke afore the Archbishop. Whereupon the sayde Iohn Claydon being asked of the Archbishop if he knewe that booke, dyd openly confesse that he knew it very well, because he caused it to be written of his owne costes and charges, MarginaliaClaidon bestowed much money vpon Englishe bookes.for he spēt muche money thereupon since his abiuration. Then was he asked who wrote it. He did aunswere, one called Iohn Grime.

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And further being required what the said Iohn Grime was, he aunswered, he coulde not tell. Agayne, being demaunded whether he did euer read the same booke, MarginaliaIohn Claydon could not read.he dyd confesse that he could not read, but he had heard the fourth part therof red of one Iohn Fullar. And being asked whether he thought the contentes of that booke to be Catholicke, profitable, good and true, he aunswered that many thinges which he had hearde in the same booke, were both profitable, good and healthful to his soule: and as he sayde,he had great affection to the sayd book, for a Sermon preached at Horsaldowne, that was written in the sayd booke. And being further asked, whether, since the tyme of hys sayd abiuration, he did commune with one Richard Baker MarginaliaRichard Turming Baker. of the City aforesayd, he did answere yea: for the sayde Richard Baker did come often vnto his house to haue cōmunication with him. And being asked, whether he knew the said MarginaliaThis Turming belike, was then in prison.Kichard to be suspected, and defamed of heresy: he did aunswere agayne that he knew well that the sayd Richard was suspected & defamed of many men and women in the City of Londō, as one whom they thought to be an hereticke.

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Which confession being made, did cause the sayd bookes to be deliuered to maister Robert Gilbert, Doctour of diuinity: to MarginaliaWilliam Lindewood doctor of both lawes.William Lindewood Doctor of both lawes, and other Clerkes, to be examined, and in the meane time Dauid Beard, Alexander Philip, and Balthasar Mero, were taken for witnesses agaynst him, and were committed to be examined, to Maister Iohn Escourt generall examiner of Canterbury. This done, the Archbishop continued hys Session till Monday next in the same place. Which Monday being come, which was the xx. of the sayd moneth, the sayd Maister Escourt openly and publickely exhibited the witnesses, being openly read before the Archbishop and other Bishops: which being read, then after that were read diuers tractations, founde in the house of the sayde Iohn Claydon: out of the which, being examined, diuers points were gathered and noted for heresies and errors, and specially out of the booke aforesaid: which booke the said Iohn Claydon confessed by his owne costes to be written and bound, which booke was intituled, the Lanterne of light. MarginaliaAn Englishe booke intituled: The Lanterne of light. In the which and in the other examined, were these Articles vnder written conteyned.

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1. First, vpon the text of the Gospell, how the enemy dyd sowe the tares, there is sayd thus: that wicked Antichrist þe Pope hath sowed among the lawes of Christ, his popish and corrupt decrees, which are of no authoritye, strength, nor valure.

2. That the Archbishops and Bishops, speaking indifferently, are the seates of the beast Antichrist, when he sitteth in thē and raigneth aboue other people in the darck caues of errors and heresyes.

3. That the Bishops licence for a man to preach the word of God, is the true caracter of the beast. i. Antichrist, & therfore simple and faythfull Priestes may preache when they will agaynst the prohibition of that Antichrist, and without licence.

4. MarginaliaThe head & taile of Antichrist.That the court of Rome is the chiefe head of Antichrist and the Bishops be the body: & the new sectes, that is, the monks, canons, and friers, brought in not by Christ, but damnably by the pope, be the venimous & pestiferous tail of Antichrist.

5. MarginaliaThis is true speaking of the inuisible Church.That no reprobate is a member of the Church but only such as be elected and predestinate to saluation: seing the church is no other thing but the congregation of faythfull soules, which doe and will keepe their faith constantly, as well in deed as in word.

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6. That Chryst did neuer plante priuate religions in the church, but whilest he liued in this world he did root them out. By which it appeareth that priuate religiōs be vnprofitable branches in the church and to be rooted out.

7. That the materiall churches should not be decked with golde siluer & precious stone sumptuously, but the folowers of the humility of Iesus Christ, ought to worship their Lord God humbly in mean & simple houses, & not in great buildings, as the churches be now a dayes.

8. MarginaliaTwo causes of persecution noted.That there be ij. chiefe causes of the persecution of the christians: one is the priestes vnlawfull keeping of tēporal and superfluous goods, the other is þe vnsatiable begging of the friers with their hye buildings.

9. MarginaliaFoure conditiōs in geuing almes.That almes is not geuen vertuously nor lawfully except it be geuen with these 4. conditions: first vnlesse it be geuen to the honor of God. 2. vnlesse it be geuen of goodes iustly gotten. 3. vnlesse it be geuē to such a person as the geuer therof knoweth to be in charity. And 4. vnles it be geuē to such as haue need and do not dissemble.

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10. That the often singing in the church is not founded in the scripture, and therefore it is not lawfull for priestes to occupy thēselues with singing in the Church, but with the study of the law of Christ, and preaching his word.

11. That Iudas did receiue the body of Christ in breade, & his bloud in wine. MarginaliaThat bread remaineth in the Sacrament.In the which it doth playnly appeare that after consecration of breade and wine made, the same bread and wine that was before, doth truely remayne on the aultar.

12. That all ecclesiasticall suffrages do profit all vertuous and godly persons indifferently.

13. That
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