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Lazio, Italy

Capital of the Papal States

Coordinates: 41° 54' 0" N, 12° 30' 0" E

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[Rowocum; Rhone; Rouan; Roan; Roane; Rowan; Rhoan]

Normandy, France

Coordinates: 49° 26' 38" N, 1° 6' 12" E

Capital of Normandy; cathedral city

691 [667]

K. Henry. 6. Paule Crawe. The story of Tho. Rhedon martyr.
¶ Paule Craw a Bohemian. 
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Paul Craw and Thomas of Rennes

Between his account of the persecution of Lollards in the diocese of Norwich in 1428-31 and his account of the council of Basel, Foxe gives the accounts of several diverse individuals punished for heresy during the second and third decades of the fifteenth century. All of Foxe's information on these martyrs came from John Bale in one form or another. Foxe first printed the accounts of Thomas Bagley, Paul Krǎvar (or Craw) and Thomas of Rennes in his Commentarii (fos. 83r-90r) and reprinted this material without change in the Rerum (pp. 72-5). Apart from a Latin poem praising Thomas of Rennes, which was dropped, this material was translated and reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments. Each of these accounts was taken, virtually word-for-word, from John Bale's notes in Bodley MS e Musaeo, fos. 63r-v and 293r-v. The list of martyrs burned in German territories in the 1420s was added in the 1570 edition and it was taken entirely from John Bale's Catalogus (p. 564). The brief note on Eugenius IV was also added in 1570 and it was also taken from Bale's Catalogus (p. 548). These brief accounts were of use to Foxe in two respects. In the first place, they served to underline a point dear to Foxe's heart: that the faithful members of the True Church existed throughout Christendom. And, secondly, it allowed Foxe to picture the persecution of these faithful as continuing without let-up through the final centuries of the world.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

THe same yeare also was Paule Crawe a Bohemian MarginaliaPaule Craw martir. Ex Hector. Boetio. taken at S. Andrewes by the Bishop Henry, and deliuered ouer to the secular power to be burnt, for holding contrary opinions vnto þe Church of Rome touching the sacramēt of þe Lords supper, the worshipping of Saincts. auricular confession, with other of Wickleffes opinions.

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The story of Thomas Rhedon, a French man, and a Carmelite Frier, burnt in Italy for the profession of Christ.

MarginaliaTho. Rhedonensis. Martir. Ex Antonin. 3. parte hist. fol. 165.WE haue declared before, how this cruell storme of persecution which first began with vs in England, after it had long raged heere against many good and godly men, it brake out & passed into Boheme, and after within a short time, the fire of this persecution increasing by little and little, inuaded Scotland, and from thence now wyth greater force and violence, this furious deuouring flame hath entred Italy, and suffereth not any part of the world to be free from the murther and slaughter of most good & godly men. MarginaliaTho. Rhedonensis cōmeth into Italy.It hapned about this time, that one Thomas Rhedon, a Frier of that sect, which taketh his name of the mount Carmelus, by chance came with the Venetiā Ambassadours into Italy. This mā, although he was of that sort and secte, which in stead of Christians, are called Carmelites, yet was he of a farre other religion, & vnderstood the word of God, iudging that God ought not to be worshipped, neither in that mount, nor at Ierusalem onely, but in spirit & truth. This man being a true Carmelite, & sauoring with his whole hart that new sweet must of Iesu Christ, with earnest study & desire seeking after a Christiā integritie of life, prepared himselfe first to go into Italy, trusting þt he should find there, or else in no place, some by whose good life and liuing he might be edified and instructed. For where ought more aboundance of vertue & good liuing to be, then in that place, which is counted to be the forte and fountaine of all religion? And how could it otherwise be, but that wheras so great holines is professed, wherupon all mens eies are bent, as vpon a stage, wheras S. Peters seate is, and is thought to be the ruler & gouernour of all the Church, all things should florish and aboūd worthy of so great expectatiō in that place? This holy man hauing these things before his eies, and considering the same with himselfe, foresooke his owne countrey & Citie, & went vnto Rome, conceiuing a firme & sure hope, that by the example of so many notable and worthy mē, he should greatly profite in godlines & learning: but the successe of the matter did vtterly frustrate his hope, for all things were cleane cōtrary. Whatsoeuer he saw, was nothing else but meere dissimulatiō and hypocrisie. In stead of gold, he found nothing but coales: and for to say þe truth, he found nothing else there but gold and siluer. MarginaliaThe golden citie of Rome.In stead of heauenly gifts, there raigned amongst them the pompe and pride of the world. In place of godlines, riot. In stead of learning and study, slouthfulnes and superstition. Tyrannie and hautinesse of mind had possessed the place of Apostolicke simplicitie: MarginaliaAll thinges corrupt at Rome. that now there remained no more any place or libertie for a man to learne that whiche hee knew not, or to teach that which he perfectly vnderstoode.

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Finally, all things were turned arsie versie, all things hapned vnto him contrary to his expectation wheresoeuer he went. MarginaliaThe wickednes & pride that raigneth at RomeBut nothing somuch offended this good mās mind, as the intolerable ambition, and pompous pride in them, whome example of humilitie should especially commend and praise to the whole worlde. And albeit that hee saw here nothing, which did accord & agree with the rule of the Apostles: yet these things did so much passe all measure and pacience, that he could by no meanes refraine his tong in so great abuse and corruption of the Church, seing such ambitious pride in their buildings, apparell, in their places, in their daintie fare, in their great traynes of seruants, in their horsse and armour, & finally in all things pertaining vnto them. Which things, how much they did vary from the prescript rule of the Gospell, so much þe more was this good mā forced to speake. Albeit he did well vnderstand how litle he shoulde preuaile by speaking: for if admonition would profite any thing at all, the bookes of Wickleffe and diuers other were not wanting. The famous testimonies of Iohn Hus, & of Hierome of Prage, and their bloud shed for the same, was yet present before their eies: at whose most effectual exhortations, they were so little correct and amended, that they seemed twise more cruell than they were before. MarginaliaThe corruptiō of Rome will admitte no reformation. Yet all this could not feare this good man, but that in so necessary and wholesome an office, he would spend his life if need should be. So by thismeanes, he which came to be a scholer vnto others, was now forced to be their teacher. And he which determined to follow other mens liues and maners, had now contrarywise set before them his life to be marked and followed. For he liued so amongst them, that his life might be a rule vnto them all, and so taught, as he might also be theyr schoolemaister. For euen as Paule had foreshewed vnto such as desired to liue godly in Christ, that they shoulde suffer persecution: such like reward hapned vnto this mā. He gaue vnto them the fruite of godlinesse, whiche they should follow: they againe set vpon his head the diademe of Martirdome. MarginaliaPietie rewarded with persecutiō. He sheweth them the way to saluation, and they for the benefite of life rewarded him death: and whereas no rewards had bene worthy for his greate labours and trauailes, they with most extreame ignominie persecuted him euen vnto the fire. For when as by continuall preaching he had gotten great enuie and hatred, the rulers began to consult together, by what meanes they might circumuent this mans life. Heere they had recourse to their accustomed remedies: for it is a peculiar and continuall custome amongst the prelates of the Church, that if any man did displease them, or that his talke be not according to their minde, or by any meanes hurtfull, or a hinderance to their lucre and gaine, by and by they frame out Articles of some heresie, which they charge him withall. MarginaliaHeresie made, where none is. And like as euery liuing thing hath his peculiar and proper weapon to defend himselfe from harme, as nature hath armed the Bore with his tuskes, the Hedgehogge with his prickles, the Lyon is feared for his clawes, the Dogge for his biting, the Bull fighteth with his hornes, neither doth the Asse lacke his houes to strike withall: euen so this is the only armour of the Bishops, to strangle a man with heresie, if he once go about to mutter against their will and ambition: which thing may be easily perceiued and seene in this most holy man, beside a greate number of other. Who, when as now he began to waxe greuous vnto them, and could no longer be suffred: what did they? MarginaliaPopery armed with policie and defended with tirannie.straightwayes flee vnto their old policies, and as they had done with Hus, and Hierome of Prage, euen so went they about to practise against this man. They ouerwhelme him with suspition, they seeke to intangle him with questions, they examine him in iudgement, they compile Articles against him, and lay heresie vnto hys charge, they condemne him as an hereticke, and beeing so condemned, they destroy and kill him. This was theyr godlines: this was the peaceable order of those Carmelites. Whose religion was to weare no sword nor shield, notwithstanding they did beare in their hearts, malice, rancour, vengeāce, poison, craft and deceipt, sharper then any sword. With how great care and policie is it prouided by law, that none of these Cleargy men should fight wyth sword in the streates? when as in iudgement and accusations (where as it is not lawfull for a man to oppresse his brother) there is no murtherer which hath more readie vengeaunce, or that doth more vily esteeme his brothers soule then they. They shead no bloud themselues, they strike not, nor kill, but they deliuer them ouer vnto others to be slaine. What difference is there I pray you, but that they are the authours, and the other are but the ministers of the cruell fact? they kill no man as murtherers do. How then? Although not after the same sort, yet they do it by another meane.

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MarginaliaHis articles.The Articles which they falsly gathered against thys man, are affirmed by some to be these.

That the Church lacketh reformation, and that it shall be punished and reformed.

That Infidels, Iewes, Turkes, and Moores shall bee conuerted vnto Christ in the later dayes.

That abhominations are vsed at Rome.

That the vniust excommunication of the Pope, is not to be feared: and those which do not obserue the same, do not sinne or offend.

MarginaliaEx Antonin. 3. part. hist fol 165But yet there lacked a minister for these articles: albeit he could not long be wanting at Rome, where all things are to be sold, euen mens soules. For this office and ministery, there was no man thought more meete, then William of Rowne, MarginaliaW. Cardinalis Rhotomagensis. his persecutour. Cardinall of Sainct Martines in the Mount, Vicechancelour of the Court of Rome. Eugenius at that time was Pope, who had a little before succeeded Pope Martin aboue mentioned. Before the whyche Eugenius, this godly Rhedonensis the Frenchman, was brought, MarginaliaTho. Rhedonensis brought before Pope Eugenius. and from thence sent vnto prison. And againe after his imprisoment, and diuers and sondry greeuous torments, he was brought before the Iudges. The Wolfe sate in iudgement: the Lambe was accused. Why? because he had troubled the spring. But heere neede not manie words. This good Thomas, not beeing able to resist the

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