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827 [799]

K. Hen. 8. Persecution in the dioces of London, of good men and women for the truth.
Iohn Caluerton.Richard Butler.
MarginaliaAnno. 1521.Anno.Iohn Woodrofe.Iohn Samme.
1511.Richard Woolman.William Kyng.
MarginaliaAnno. 1521.Roger Hyllyar.Robert Durdant.
Alyce Couper.Henry Woolman.
MarginaliaAnno. 1523.Thomas Austye.Edmond Spilman.
Ioanne Austye.Iohn Higges. aliâs
Thomas Graunt.Noke, aliâs
Iohn Garter.Iohnsonne.
MarginaliaAnno. 1526.Christopher Rauins.Henry Chambers.
Dionise Rauins.Iohn Hynggyns.
MarginaliaAnno. 1527.Thomas Vincent.Thomas Egleston.
Here foloweth the particular examination of all these heere aboue named.

To these were diuers and sundry particular Articles, (besides the common and generall sort accustomably vsed in such cases) priuately obiected, euen such as they were then accused of either by their curate, or other their neighbours. And because I thinke it somewhat superfluous to make any large recitall of all and euery part of their seuerall processe: I minde therefore briefly only to touch so many of their articles as may be sufficient to induce the Christian Reader to iudge the sooner of the rest: being (I assure you) of no greater importance, then these that folow: MarginaliaEx Regist. Rich. Fitziames.Except that sometime they were charged most slanderously with horrible and blasphemous lies, against the maiestie and truth of God, which as they vtterly denied, so doo I now for this present keepe secret in silence, as well for breuities sake, 

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Foxe never does anything for the sake of brevity and that this is, in effect, a warning that he has edited these accounts to remove materials he found un-desirable.

as also somewhat to colour & hide the shameles practises of that lieng generation. But to our purpose.

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MarginaliaIoanne Baker.THe chiefest obiection against Ioanne Baker, was, 

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Foxe abridges the articles against Joan Baker, although for the most part, he prints them accurately. Occasionally he refines Baker's language (sheactually said that she would do no more reverence to the crucifix in church than to a dog), but most importantly he supresses two of her replies. Interestingly, in bothcases where he did this, in was to conceal her anti-clericalism, not any doctrinaldeviance. Foxe omitted her statement that she could hear a better sermon at homethan any priest or doctor could give at Paul's Cross or anywhere else. Foxe alsodeleted her denunciation of clerical tithes (cf. Guildhall MS 9531/9, fo. 25r-v).Richard Hunne came to the attention of the auorities trying to defend Joan Baker(One of the articles charged against him at his posthumous heresy trial was that he had declared that Joan Baker - who was forced to do public pennance for her outspokenly heretical beliefs in 1511 - held correct views and that the bishop of London was more worthy of punishment than Baker.).

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that she would not only her selfe not reuerence þe Crucifixe: MarginaliaAgaynst worshipping of the crucifixe or crosse. but had also perswaded a frend of hers lieng at the point of death, not to put any trust or cōfidēce in the Crucifixe, but in God which is in heauen, who only worketh all the myracles that be done, and not the dead Images, that be but stockes and stones: and therefore she was sory, that euer she had gone so often on Pilgrimage to S. Sauiour and other Idols. Also, that she did hold opinion that the Pope had no power to geue pardons, & that MarginaliaTestimonie for the Lady yong Mart.Lady Yong (who was not long before that time burned, died a true martyr of God, and therefore she wished of God, that she her selfe might do no worse then the said Lady Yong had done. 
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There is actually no evidence that Lady Jane Young, the wife of Sir John Young, a wealthy draper and Lord Mayor of London, was ever burned.Andrew Hope has argued that Joan Baker confused Jane Young with her motherJoan Boughton, who was burned at Smithfield on on 28 April 1494. It is true,however, that Jane Young was herself suspected of heresy. (See Andrew Hope,'The lady and the baliff: Lollardy among the gentry in Yorkist and early TudorEngland' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond [Stroud, 1997], p. 260 and J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards,1414-1520 [Oxford, 1965}, pp. 156-7).

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MarginaliaWilliam Pottier.VNto William Pottyer, besides diuers other false and slanderous articles 

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The charges against William Pottier, and his replies to them, are obscure and clearly baffled Foxe, who was unusually candid in printing as much of them as he did. Pottier did, in essence, deny the benefit of Christ's passion, bystating that a person who committed a mortal sin was damned. (Perhaps this wasan attempt to deny the power of pennance or confession to absolve mortal sin). PaceFoxe, Pottier did not confess that the Trinity was only one God (Guildhall MS9531/9, fo.26v). Andrew Hope has persuasively argued that Pottier's confusing belief in six gods was a distortion of views commonly found in Lollard treatises(Andrew Hope, 'Lollardy: the Stone the Bulders Rejected?' in Protestantismand the National Church in Sixteenth Century England, ed. Peter Lake and MariaDowling [London, 1987], p. 18).

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MarginaliaFalse slaunder of the aduersaries. (as that he should denie the benefite and effect of Christes passion) it was also alleged that he should affirme, that there were sixe Gods. The first three was the holy Trinitie, the father, the sonne, and the holy Ghost. The fourth was a priests concubine beeing kept in his chamber. The fift was the Deuill. And the sixt that thing that a man setteth his mind most vpon.

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MarginaliaAnswere.The first part of this Article he vtterly denied, confessing most firmely and truely the blessed Trinitie to be only one God in one vnitie of Deitie: as to the other three he answered, that a Priest delighting in his concubine, made her as his God Likewise a wicked person persisting in his sinne without repentaunce, made the Deuill his God. And lastly he graunted, that hee once hearing of certaine men, whiche by the singing and chattering of birdes, would seeke to knowe what things were to come, eyther to themselues or others, 

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Pottier is referring to divination by listening to the sounds birds made.

sayd that those men esteemed their birds as Gods: and otherwise he spake not.

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MarginaliaT. Godred. Tho. Walker. Tho. Forge. &c.AMongest the manifold and seuerall articles obiected 

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From here until his discussion of Sweeting and Brewster, Foxe is clearly drawing on court books that are now lost (Foxe's knowledge of the ends of these two men came from a court book of Bishop Fitzjames, which is now lost). There is corroboration for the existence and heretical views of the heretics that Foxe discusses, including Sweeting and Brewster, in notes made by James Ussher (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fos. 122r-125r). There is additional corroboration in the fact that many of the people named here would later be in trouble again with the authorities for their religious beliefs (such as Thomas Austy, Thomas Vincent, Lewis John, Elizabeth Stamford and John Household).

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The close family relationships of of many of these accused is also worth observing (For instance, Thomas Austy was the son-in-law of Thomas Vincent and Vincent may have been the father-in-law of Richard Hunne as well as of Austy).

against Thomas Goodred, Thomas Walker, Thomas Forge, Alyce Forge his wife, Iohn Forge their sonne, Iohn Caluerton, Iohn Woodrofe, Richard Woolman, and Roger Hilliar (As that they should speake against Pilgrimages, praieng vnto Saints, and such like, this principally was propounded, MarginaliaAgaynst transubstantiation and corporall presence.that they all denied the carnall and corporall presence of Christes body and bloud in the Sacrament of the altar: 
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Foxe would say this, but his asertion is corroborated by Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fo. 123r.

and further, had concealed, and consented vnto their teachers and instructers of that doctrine, and had not according vnto þe lawes of the Church, accused and presented them vnto the Bishop or Ordinary. Also great and heinous displeasure was conceiued against Richard Wolman, for that he tearmed the Church of Paules, a house of theeues: affirming that Priests, and other Ecclesiasticall persons there, were not liberall geuers vnto the poore (as they ought) but rather takers away from them, what they could get.

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MarginaliaTho. Austy. Ioan Austy. &c.Likewise, as Thomas Austye, 

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Thomas Austy was the son-in-law of Thomas Vincent (BL, Harley MS421, fo. 12r). In 1527, Austy would would be condemned to perpetual imprisonmentas an obdurate heretic, but he escaped.

Ioanne Austye hys wife, Thomas Graunt, Iohn Garters, Christofer Rauins, Dionise Rauins his sister, Thomas Vincent, 
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Thomas Vincent was the father-in-law of Thomas Austy and possibly also the father-in-law of Richard Hunne.

Lewes Iohn, 
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Lewis John is almost certainly the same Lewis John who in 1508denied the presence of Christ's body in the sacramenrt of the altar and who would,be named as an associate of a Lollard burned in Buckinghamshire (J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards, 1414-1520 [)xford, 1965], p. 88).

Ioan Iohn his wife, & Iohn Webbe, were of one felowship and profession of faith, with diuers of þe last before recited: so were they also almost all apprehended a-bout one time, & chiefly burdened with one opinion of the Sacrament. MarginaliaAgaynst transubstantiatiō, & corporall presence. Which declareth euidently, that notwithstandyng the darke ignoraunce of those corrupted tymes, yet God did euer in mercy opē the eyes of some, to behold the manifest truth, euen in those thinges, wherof the Papistes make now greatest vaunt and bragge of longest continuaunce. Furthermore many of them were charged to haue spoken agaynst Pilgrimages: & to haue read and vse certaine English bookes, repugnyng the fayth of the Romish Church: as the four Euangelistes, Wickleffes Wicket, a booke of the x. commaundementes of almightie God, the Reuelation of S. Iohn, the Epistles of Paule & Iames, with other like, which those holy ones could neuer abide, & good cause why: for as darkenes could neuer agree with light, no more cā ignoraunce, the mainteiner of that kingdome, with the true knowledge of Christ and his Gospel.

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It was further particularly obiected agaynst Ioanne Iohn, the wife of Lewes Iohn, that (besides the premisses) she learned and mainteined, MarginaliaAgaynst holy dayes.that God commaunded no holy dayes to bee kept, but onely the Sabboth day, and therefore she would keepe none but it, nor no fastyng dayes affirmyng, that to fast from sinne was the true fast. Moreouer, that she had despised the Pope, his Pardons, and Pilgrimages: MarginaliaAgainst pilgrimage, and adoration of images In somuch that when any poore body asked his almes of her in the worship of the Lady of Walsingham, she would straight aunswere in contempt of the Pilgrimage: the Lady of Walsingham helpe thee. And if she gaue any thyng vnto him, she would then say: Take this in the worshyp of our Lady in heauen, and let the other goe. Which declareth that for lacke of better instructiō and knowledge, she yet ignorauntly attributed too much honour to the true Saintes of God departed: though otherwise she did abhorre the idolatrous worshippyng of the dead Images. By which example, as also by many others (for shortnesse sake, at this present omitted) I haue iust occasion to cōdemne the wilfull subtiltie of those, that in this bright shinyng light of Gods trueth, would yet vnder colour of godly remembraunce, still mainteyne the hauyng of Images in the Church, craftely excusing their idolatrous kneelyng and praying vnto them, by affirming that they neuer worshypped the dead Images, but the thynges that the Images did represent. But if that were their onely doctrine and cause of hauyng them, why thē would their predecessours so cruelly compell these poore simple people thus openly in their recantations to abiure and reuoke their speakyng agaynst the grosse adoration of the outward Images onely, and not against the thing represented? which many of them, (as appeareth partly by this exāple) in their ignoraunt simplicitie, confessed might be worshipped. Howbeit, God be thanked (who euer in his mercy continue it) their coulourable and hypocriticall excuses can not now take such place in the hartes of the elect of God, as they haue done heretofore, especially seyng the word of God doth so manifestly forbid as wel the worshyppyng of them, as also the makyng or hauing of them, for order of Religion.

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MarginaliaWilliam Couper and his wifeIT was alledged against Williā Couper and Alice Couper his wife, that they had spoken against Pilgrimages, & worshyppyng of Images: but chiefly the woman, who hauyng her childe on a tyme hurt by fallyng into a pyt or ditche, and earnestly perswaded by some of her ignoraunt neighbours, to go on Pilgrimage to S. Laurēce for helpe for her child, MarginaliaAgainst inuocation of dead Images.sayd that neither S. Laurence, nor any other S. could helpe her child, & therfore none ought to goe on Pilgrimage to any Image made with mās hād, but one-to vnto almightie God: for Pilgrimages were nothyng worth, sauing to make the Priestes riche. Vid. plura inferius.

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MarginaliaIohn Houshold &c.VNto Iohn Houshold, Robert Rascall, and Elizabeth Stamford 

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Elizabeth Stamford and John Household would be examined again in 1517 and would then both abjure.

, as well the Article against the Sacrament of the altar was obiected, MarginaliaAgainst trāsubstantiation and authoritie of the Pope.as also that they had spoken agaynst praying to Saintes, & had despised the authoritie of the Byshop of Rome, and others of his Clergy. But especially Iohn Houshold was charged to haue called thē Antichristes and whooremongers, and the Pope him selfe a strong strumpet, and a common baude vnto the world, who with his Pardōs had drowned in blindnes all Christian Realmes, and that for money.

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MarginaliaGeorge Brown.ALso among diuers other ordinary Articles propounded agaynst George Browne, these were coūted very heynous & hereticall: First, that he had sayd, MarginaliaAgainst adoration of the crosse.that he knew no cause why the Crosse should be worshipped, seyng that the same was an hurt & payne vnto our Sauiour Christ in the tyme of his Passion, and not any ease or pleasure, alledging for example, that if he had had a frend hanged or drowned, he would euer after haue loued that gallowes, or water, (by the which his frend dyed) rather worse for that, thē better. An other obiection was, that he had erro-

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neously,
AAa.iiij.
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