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CanterburyColchesterStaines [Stanes]
 
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Canterbury
Cant., Canterb., Canterbury, Caunterbury, Caunterburye,
NGR: TR 150 580

An ancient city and county of itself, having separate jurisdiction. Locally in the hundred of Bridge and Petham, lathe of St. Augustine, eastern division of the county of Kent. 26 miles south-east by east from Rochester. The city comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. Alphege, St. Andrew, St. George, The Holy Cross, St. Margaret, St. Martin, St. Mary Bredman, St. Mary Bredin, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Mary Northgate, St. Mildred, St. Peter and St. Paul, all in the Diocese of Canterbury, and with the exception of St. Alphege and St. Martin within the Archdeaconry of Canterbury. The living of All Saints is a rectory with St. Mary in the Castle and St. Mildred attached; St. Alphege is a rectory exempt, united with the vicarage of St. Mary Northgate; St. Andrew is a rectory with St. Mary Bredman annexed; St. George is a rectory with St. Mary Magdalene annexed; St. Martin's is a rectory exempt with St. Paul's annexed; St. Peter's is a rectory with Holy Cross annexed; St. Mary Bredin is a vicarage; and St. Margaret's is a donative in the patronage of the Archdeacon

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Colchester
Colchester, Colchestre
NGR: TM 000 250

A borough, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the Colchester division of the hundred of Lexden, county of Essex. 22 miles north-east by east from Chelmsford. The town comprises the parishes of All Saints, St. James, St. Martin, St. Mary at the Walls, St. Nicholas, St. Peter, St. Rumwald and Holy Trinity within the walls; and St. Botolph, St. Giles, St. Leonard and St. Mary Magdalene without the walls; all in the archdeaconry of Colchester and Diocese of London

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Staines [Stanes]

Surrey

OS grid ref: TQ 045 715

828 [804]

K. Hen. 8. Persecution in Lond. Dioces by Fitziames, and Tonsall B. of London.

neously, obstinately, and maliciously said (for so are theyr words) that the Church was too rich. 

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This is corroborated in Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fo.124v.

MarginaliaAgainst immoderate riches of the popes clergy This matter, I may tell you, touched somewhat the quicke, and therefore no maruell though they counted it erroneous and malicious: for take away their gaine, and farewell their religion. They also charged him to haue refused holy water to be cast about his chamber, and likewise to haue spoken against priests, with other vaine matters.

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MarginaliaIohn Wikes.THe greatest matter wherewith they burdened Iohn Wikes, was that he had often and of long time kept company with diuers persons suspected of heresie (as they termed them) and had receiued them into his house, and there did suffer and heare them sundry times reade erroneous and hereticall bookes, cōtrary to the faith of the Romish Church, and did also himselfe consent vnto their doctrine: and had many times secretly conueyed them from the taking of such as were appointed to apprehend them.

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MarginaliaIoh. Southacke. Rich Butler. &cVide inferius.LIke as the greatest number of those before mentioned: so were also Iohn Southake, Richard Butler, Iohn Samme, William King, Robert Durdant, and Henrye Woolmā, MarginaliaAgainst the real presence.especially charged with speaking words against the real presence of Christes body in the Sacrament of the Altar, and also against Images, and the rest of the seauen Sacraments. Howbeit, they burdened the last v. persons with the reading of certaine English hereticall bookes, accounting most blasphemously the Gospel of Iesus Christ, writtē by the 4. Euangelists, to be of that number, as appeareth euidently by the 8. article obiected by Tho. Benet Doctour of lawe, and Chancelour and vicare general vnto Rich. Fitziames then Bish. of London, against the sayd Rich. Butler. The very words of which article (for a more declaration of truth) I haue thought good heere to insert: which are these. MarginaliaReading of Englishe bookes.Also we obiect to you, that diuers times, and especially vpon a certaine night, about the space of three yeares last past, in Robert Durdantes house of Yuer court neare vnto Stanes, you erroneously and damnably read in a great booke of heresie of the sayd Robert Durdants, all that same night, certaine chapters of the Euangelists in English, conteining in them diuers erroneous and damnable opinions and conclusions of heresie, in the presence of the sayde Robert Durdant, Iohn Butler, Robert Carder, Ienkin Butler, William King, and diuers other suspect persons of heresie then being present, and hearing your sayd erroneous lectours and opinions. To the same effect and purpose tended the tenour of some of the Articles propounded against the other foure. MarginaliaOf these men see more hereafter in the table following. Whereby (as also by others like before specified) we may easily iudge what reuerence they which yet will be counted the true and onely Churche of Christ, did beare to the word and Gospell of Christ: who shamed not to blaspheme the same with most horrible titles of erroneous and damnable opinions, and conclusions of heresie. But why should we maruel thereat, seeing the holy Ghost in sundry places of the Scripture doth declare, that in the latter daies there should come such proud and cursed speakers, which shal speake lies through hypocrisy, and haue their consciences marked with an hot yron? Let vs therefore now thanke our heauenly father for reuealing them vnto vs, and let vs also pray him, that of his free mercies in his sonne Christ Iesus, he would (if it be to his glory) eyther turne and mollifie all such harts, or else (for the peace and quietnes of his Church) he woulde in his righteous iudgement take them from vs.

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MarginaliaThe death of Richard Fitziames bishop of London.About this time Richard Fitziames ended his life. 

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Bishop Fitzjames died on 15 January 1522 and was succeeded by Cuthbert Tunstall. Foxe's smooth transition here from one episcopate to anotheris yet another indication that he was using a court book and not an episcopalregister, which would have ended with the death of a bishop.

After whose death, Cutbert Tunstall MarginaliaCuthbert Tonstall Bishop of London. (afterwards Byshop of Durham) succeeded in the Sea and Bishoprike of London: who soone vpon his first entrie into the roome, minding to follow rightly the footesteps of his predecessour, caused Edmund Spilman priest, Henry Chambers, Iohn Higgins, and Thomas Eglestone, to be apprehended, and so to be examined vpon sundry like Articles, as before are expressed, and in the end, either for feare of his crueltie, and the rigour of death, or else through hope of his flattering promises (such was their weakenesse) he compelled them to abiure and renounce their true professed faith touching the holy Sacrament of Christes body and bloud: MarginaliaThe reall presence denied. which was, that Christes corpall body was not in the sacrament, but in heauen, and that the Sacrament was a figure of his body, and not the body it selfe.

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MOreouer, about the same time there were certaine articles obiected against Iohn Hig, 

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John Hig would be dispensed for pennance imposed for a laterreligious offence in 1527 (TNA SP 1/47, fo. 80r).

aliâs Noke, aliâs Iohnson, by the saide Bishops vicar generall. Amongst which were these: MarginaliaAgainst a priest to haue two benefices.First, that he had affirmed, that it was as lawfull for a tēporall mā to haue two wiues at once, as for a priest to haue two benefices. Also that he had in hys custody a booke of the foure Euangeslistes in English, and did often reade therein: MarginaliaTestimony touching M. Lutherand that he fauoured the doctrines & opinions of Martin Luther, openly pronouncing that Luther had more learning in his litle finger, then all þe do-ctours in England in their whole bodies: and that all the Priestes in the Church were blind, and had led the people the wrong way. Likewise it was alledged agaynst him, that he he denied Purgatory, and had sayd, that while he were alyue he would do as much for him selfe as he could, for after his death he thought that prayer & almes deedes could little helpe him.

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These and such like matters were they, wherewith these poore and simple men and women were chiefly charged, and as heynous heretickes excommunicated, emprisoned, and at last compelled to recant: and some of them in vtter shame and reproch (besides the ordinary bearyng of fagots before the Crosse in processiō, or els at a Sermon) were enioyned for penaunce (as they termed it) as well to appeare once euery yeare before their ordinary, MarginaliaThe maner of popish penaunce.as also to weare the signe of a fagot painted vpon their sleeues or other part of their outward garment, and that during their liues, or so often and long as it pleased their ordinary to appoint. By which long rigorous and open punishing of them, they ment (as it should seeme) vtterly to terrifie and keepe backe all others from the true knowledge of Iesus Christ and his Gospell. But the Lord be euermore praysed, what effect their wicked purposes therein haue takē, these our most lightsome dayes of Gods glorious Gospel so most ioyfully declare.

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MarginaliaThe troubles of Helene Heyer. and Robert Barkeway.THere were also troubled beside these, certaine others more simple and ignoraunt: who hauyng but a very smal smake or tast of the truth, did yet at the first (as it may seeme) gladly consent vnto the same: but beyng apprehended, they quickly agayne yelded, and therefore had onely assigned them for their penaunce, the bearyng of a litle cādle before the Crosse, without any further opē abiuryng or recantyng. Amongest which I finde two especially: the one, a woman called Elene Heyer, to whom it was obiected that she had neither confessed her selfe vnto the Priest, nor yet receiued the Sacrament of the altar by the space of 4. yeares, and notwithstandyng had yearely eaten fleshe at Easter, and after, as well as others that had receiued the same, contrary to the vsuall maner and conuersation of all other Christian people.

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The other was a mā named Robert Berkeway who (besides most wicked blasphemies agaynst God, whiche he vtterly denyed) was charged to haue spoken heynous wordes against the Popes holy and blessed Martyr Thomas Becket, callyng him micher and theefe, for that hee wrought by craftes and imaginations.

Thus haue I (as briefly as I could) summarely collected the principall Articles obiected agaynst these weake, infirme, and earthy vessels. Not minding hereby to excuse or condēne them in these their fearefull falles and daungerous defectiōs: 

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Once again, Foxe is justifying both the occasional theologicallapses of these Lollards and also the fact that they abjured these beliefs.

but leauyng them vnto the vnmeasurable rich mercies of the Lord, I thought onely to make manifest the vnsaciable bloudy crueltie of þe Popes kingdome, agaynst the Gospell and true Church of Christ, nothyng mitigatyng their enuious rage, no not agaynst the very simple idiotes, and that sometyme in most friuolous and irreligious cases. But now leauyng to say any further herein, I will (by Gods grace) go forthward with other somewhat serious matters.

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¶ The death and Martyrdome of William Swetyng, and Iohn Brewster.

Marginaliawil. Sweting, Iohn Brewster Martirs.IN searchyng and perusing of the Register, for the collection of the names & Articles before recited, I finde that within the compasse of the same yeares, there were also some others, who after they had once shewed themselues as frayle & vnconstaūt as the rest (beyng either therewith pricked in conscience, or otherwise zelously ouercome with the manifest truth of Gods most sacred word) became yet agayn as earnest professours of Christ, as euer they were before, and for the same profession were the secōd tyme apprehēded, examined, condemned, and in the end were most cruelly burned. Of the which number were, Williā Swetyng, and Iohn Brewster, who were both burned together in Smithfield, the xviij. day of October in the yeare of our Lord. 1511. 

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Foxe gives fuller accounts of Sweeting and Brewster later in histext and more will be said about their interesting careers then. For now,suffice it to say that Foxe's knowledge of their ends came from a court book ofBishop Fitzjames, which is now lost. Thankfully, Archbishop James Ussher tookfairly full notes from this book of their case (Trinity College, Dublin, Dublin MS775, fos. 122v-124v). Sweeting and Brewster had already abjured before theirfinal arrests in 1511 and they burned as relapsed heretics on 18 October 1511.

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the chiefest case of religion alledged agaynst them in their Articles, MarginaliaAgainst trāsubstantiatiō & corporall presēce in the Sacrament.was their fayth cōcernyng the Sacrament of Christes body and bloud. Which because it differed from the absurde, grosse, and Caparniticall opiniō of the new Scholemē, was coūted as most heynous heresie. There were other thyngs besides obiected agaynst them: as the reading of certaine forbidden bookes, and accompanying with such persons as were suspected of heresie. But one great and heynous offence counted amongest the rest, was their putting & leauing of the paintyng fagots, which they were at their first abiuryng, enioyned to weare, as

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