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west London

OS grid ref: TQ 241 761

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NGR: SU 145 300

A city having separate civil jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Underditch, county of Wilts. 82 miles south-west by west from London. The city comprises the parishes of St Edmund, St Martin and St Thomas, in the jurisdiction of the Sub-Dean, and in the diocese of Salisbury, of which the city is the seat. The cathedral precinct is extra-parochial, and under the jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter. The living of St Edmund is a rectory not in charge; St Martin is a discharged rectory; and St Thomas a perpetual curacy.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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in the northwest part of the city of London

OS grid ref: TQ 31574 81732

Historic livestock market and place of execution

839 [815]

K. Henry. 8. The trouble and death of Iohn Stilman, and Thomas Man martirs.

men beside these aboue rehearsed, which in those dayes recanted and abiured about the beginning of king Henryes raigne and before: among whō yet notwithstanding, some there were whom the Lord reduced againe, & made strong in the profession of his truth, and constant vnto death: of which number, one was Iohn Stilman MarginaliaIohn Stilman, Martyr by name, who about the xxiiij. day of Sept, in the yeare of our Lord. 1518. was apprehended 

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The full record for Stillman's trial does not survive, but there are references to it in Archbishop Ussher's notes, taken from the London courtbook before it disappeared. These notes corroborate Stillman's claiming that Wiclif was a saint in heaven and that Wiclif's Wicket was a good and holy work (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fos. 124r and 125r). Moreover, Stillman had indeed been tried for heresy by Bishop Edmund Audley of Salisbury (J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards, 1414-1520 (Oxford. 1965), pp. 83-84).

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and brought before Richard Fitziames then B. of Lond. at his manor of Fulham, and by him was there examined and charged, that notwithstanding his former recantation, oth, and abiuration made about xi. yeres then past, before Edmund Byshop of Salisbury, as well for speaking against þe worshipping, praying, and offering vnto Images, as also for denying the carnal and corporal presence in þe sacrament of Christes memoriall: yet sithens that time he had fallen into the same opinions againe, and so into the daunger of relapse, and further he had highly commended and praysed Iohn Wickliffe, affirming that he was a saint in heauen, and that hys booke called þe Wicket, MarginaliaWickliffes Wicket. was good and holy. 
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For the wide circulation of these works among the London Lollards, and the importance these texts held for them, see Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1991), pp. 89-91.

MarginaliaEx Regist. Fitziames. Lond. Soone after hys examination he was sent from thence vnto the Lollardes tower at London, and the xxij. day of October then next ensuing, was brought openly into the consistory at Paules, and was there iudicially examined by Thom. Hed the byshops vicare generall, vpon the contentes of these articles followyng.

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MarginaliaArticles laid agaynst Ioh. Stilman.1. First I obiect vnto you, that you haue confessed before my Lord of London, and me D. Hed his vicar generall, that about xx. yeares past Marginalia* Yeares of Antiquitie to be noted. one Steuen Moone of the Dioces of Winchest. (With whom you abode 6. or 7. yeaes after) did teach you to beleene that the going on pilgrimage and worshipping of images (as the Lady of Walsingham and others) were not to be vsed. And also that afterwards one MarginaliaA godly Martyr, Richarde Smart burned at Salisbury ann. 1503.Richard Smart who was burned at Salisbury about 14. or 15. yeares past, did read vnto you Wickliffes Wicket, 

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For the wide circulation of these works among the London Lollards, and the importance these texts held for them, see Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1991), pp. 89-91.

MarginaliaWickliffes Wicket. and likewise instructed you to beleeue that the sacrament of the altar was not the body of Christ: all whiche thinges you haue erroneously beleued.

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2. Item, you haue diuers times read the said book called Wickleffes Wicket, 

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For the wide circulation of these works among the London Lollards, and the importance these texts held for them, see Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1991), pp. 89-91.

and one other booke of the x. Commaundementes, which the sayd Richard Smart did geue you, and at the tyme of your first apprehensiō, you did hide thē in an old oke, and did not reuele them vnto the bishop of Salisbury, before whom you were abiured of heresie about xi. yeares since: where you promised by oth vpon the Euangelistes, euer after to beleue and hold as the Christē fayth taught and preached, and neuer to offend agayne in the sayd heresies, or any other, vpon payne of relapse. And futher you there promised to performe all such penaunce as the sayd Bishop of Salisbury did enioyne you: who thē enioyned you, vpon the like payne, not to depart his Dioces, without hys speciall licence.

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3. Item, it is euident that you be relapsed aswel by your own confession, as also by your deedes in that about two yeares after your abiuration you went into the sayd place where you had hidden your books, and then taking them away with you: you departed the foresayd dioces, without the licence of the Bishop and brought them with you to London, where nowe being tached and taken with them vpon great suspicion of heresie, you are brought vnto the Bishop of London. By reason of whiche your demeanor, you haue shewed by your impenitent and dissembled conuersation from your errours, and also your vnfaithful abiuration and disobedience vnto the authoritie of our mother holy Church, in that you performed not the penance, in whiche behalfe you be voluntarily periured and also relapsed, in that you departed the sayd dioces wythout licence.

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4. Item you be not onely (as afore is sayd) impenitent, disobedient, voluntarily periured, & relapsed by this your foresayd hereticall demeanor, but also sithens your last attachment vpon suspicion of heresie, you haue maliciously spoken erroneous and damnable wordes, affirming before my Lord of London your Ordinary and me, iudicially sitting at Fulham, that you were sorye þt euer you did abiure your said opinions, and had not suffered then manfully for them: for they were and be good and true, and therfore you will now abide by them, to die for it. And furthermore you haue spoken against our holy father the pope and hys authoritie, damnably saying that he is Antichrist, and not the true successor of Peter, or Christes vicar on earth: and that his pardons and indulgences which he graunteth in þe sacrament of penaunce, are nought, and that you will none of thē: And likewise þt the colledge of Cardinals be limmes of the sayd Antichrist: and that all other inferiour prelates and Priestes are the sinagogue of Sathan. MarginaliaWickliffes Wicket.And moreouer you sayd, that the doctors of the Churche haue subuertedthe truth of holy Scripture, expounding it after their own mindes, and therfore theyr workes be nought, and they in hell: but that wickleffe is a Sainct in heauen, and that the booke called his Wicket, is good, for therein he sheweth the truth. Also you did wish that there were xx. thousand of your opinion against vs Scribes and Pharisies, to see what you would doe for the defēce of your fayth. Al which heresies you did afterwardes erroneously affirme before þe Archbishop of Caunterbury, and then said that you would abide by thē to dye for it: notwithstanding his earnest perswasions to the contrary: and therefore for these premisses you be euidently relapsed, and ought to be committed vnto the secular power.

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All these articles thus propounded, and his constant perseuering in the truth perceiued, Doctour Hed vicar ge-

¶ The burning of Iohn Stilman.
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John Stilman, who had a long heretical career behind him, had come to the attention of the authorities eleven years before he was eventually rearrested and condemned in 1518. A book owner, who moved between different areas, the charges against him included his praise of Wiclif's Wicket. He is among the early sixteenth-century Lollards whom we know about from both Foxe and official records.

nerall the xxv. day of October by his sentence definitiue, did condemne him as a relapsed hereticke, and so deliuered him the same present day, vnto the Sheriffes of London, to be openly burned in Smithfield.

¶ Thomas Man Martyr.

MarginaliaTho. Man. Martyr.NExt to Iohn Stilman aboue mentioned, followeth in this blessed order of Martyrs, the persecution and cōdemnation of Thomas Man. Who the 29. day of Marche in the yeare of our Lord. 1518. was burned in Smithfield. 

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This detailed account of Thomas Man appears to be based on two sources that are now lost: a court book of the diocese of London recording heresy trials under Bishops Fitzjames and Tunstall, and a court book of the diocese of Lincoln, recording heresy trials under Bishops Smith and Longland. (The Lincoln courtbook probably also contained the now lost records of Longland's persecution in the Chilterns in 1521). Foxe may also have had an unnamed informant for Thomas Man's execution. Foxe's account of Man is very convincing in its circumstantial detail. There is also one piece of corroboration for it: the signification of Man's excommunication and transfer to secular authority for execution and it is dated 1 March 1518 (TNA C 85/126/28).

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This Tho. Man had likewise bene apprehended for þe profession of Christes Gospell, about 6. yeares before, the 14. day of August. an. 1511. 
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This would have placed Man's first arrest in 1512; Man was actually been arrested and tried in 1511.

and being at that time brought before D. Smith B. of Lincolne, was by him examined vpon dyuers and sundry articles: the effect wherof are these. 
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These articles are almost certainly taken from a lost court book from the diocese of Lincoln. C 189/12 Foxe is reconstructing the details of More's abjuration and escape from the charges made against Man in London in 1518.

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MarginaliaThe articles of Thomas Man.1. First, that he had spoken against auricular confession, and denyed the corporall presence of Christes body in the sacrament of the altar.

2. Item, that he beleued that al holy men of his sect were onely priestes.

3. Item, that he had affirmed that the father of heauen was the altar, and the second person the sacrament, & that vppon the Ascension day the sacrament ascended vnto the altar, and there abideth still.

4. Item, that he beleued not aright in the sacrament of extreme vnction.

5. Item that he had called certaine priestes meanely arrayed, pyld knaues.

6. Item, that he had sayd that pulpits were priestes lying stooles.

7. Item, that he had beleued that images ought not to be worshipped: and that he neyther belueed in the Crucifixe, nor yet would worship it.

8. Item, that he had affirmed that he heard say, the word of God and God to be al one, and that he worthily receiueth the word of God, receiueth God.

9. Item, that he had sayd, that the popish Churche was

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