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Cologne (Köln; Colonia Agrippina)
 
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Cologne (Köln; Colonia Agrippina)

[Colen; Colleyn; Collen; Colon]

North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

Coordinates: 50° 57' 0" N, 6° 58' 0" E

Cathedral city

868 [844]

K. Hen 8. The Popes blasfemous indulgences. The history of M. Luther.

by their proper works, and that they be iust before God by outward discipline, as the Phariseis taught. Luther dilligently reduced the mindes of men, to the sonne of God. As Iohn Baptist demonstrated the lambe of God that tooke away the sinns of the world: euen so Luther shining in the church of a bright starre after a long cloudy and obscure skye, MarginaliaLuther taught Iesus Christ.expresly shewed that sinnes are freely remitted for the loue of the sonne of God, and that we ought faythfully to embrace this bountifull gift.

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These happy 

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In the 1570 edition Foxe amended these passages to remove the dangerous admissions (at least to sixteenth-century readers) that Luther was an innovator and that many of his mentors and colleagues deplored the schism that he created in the Church.

beginninges of so good matters, got him great authoritie, especially seeing his lyfe also was correspondent to his profession. The consideration whereof allured to him meruailously the hartes of his auditors, and also many notable personages.

All this while Luther yet altered nothing in the ceremonyes, but precisely obserued his rule amōg his felowes he medled in no doubtfull opinions, but taught this onely doctrine, as most principall of all other to all men, opening & declaring the doctrine of repentance, of remission of sins of fayth, of true comfort in times of aduersitie. Euery man receaued good taste of this sweet doctrine, and the learned conceiued high pleasure to behold Iesus Christ, the Prophets & Apostles, to come forth into light out of darcknes, wherby they began to vnderstand the difference betwixt þe law and the Gospell: betwixt the promises of the law, and the promise of the Gospell: betwixt spiritual iustice, & ciuil things: which certainly could not haue bene foūd in Thomas Aquine, Scotus, nor such like schoole clerkes.

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MarginaliaErasmus openeth the way before Luther.It happened moreouer about this time, that manye were prouoked by Erasmus learned workes, to study the Greek & Latine tongues, who perceiuing a more gentle & ready order of teaching then before, began to haue in contempt the Monkes barbarous and sophisticall doctrine: & specially such as were of liberall nature and good disposition. Luther began to study the Greeke and Hebrue tonge to this end, that after he had learned the phrase and proprietie of the tongues, and drawne the doctrine of the very fountaynes, he might geue more sound iudgement.

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MarginaliaEx Christia. Massæo. Lib. 20. Chronic.As Luther was thus 

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All of the passages which follow, on the pontificate of Leo X, down to the mention of Tetzel, are taken from John Bale, Catalogus (p. 645). This includes the citation of Christian Massaeus's chronicle, which Foxe is repeating from Bale.

occupyed in Germany, whiche was the yeare of our Lord 1516. Leo þe. x. of that name succeeding after Iulius. 2. was Pope of Rome. Who vnder pretence of warre against the Turke, sent a Iubile wyth his pardons, abroad through all Christen Realmes & dominions: whereby he gathered together innumerable riches and treasure. The gatherers and collecters whereof perswaded the people, that whosoeuer would geue x. shillings, shuld at his pleasure, deliuer one soule from þe payns of Purgatory. Marginalia10 shilling pardons. For this they held as a generall rule, that God would do, what soeuer they woulde haue him, according to the saying: Quicquid solueritis super terram, erit solutum in cœlis. &c. Whatsoeuer you loose vpon earth, the same shal be loosed in heauen. But if it were but one iotte lesse then x. shillinges, they preached that it would profite thē nothing. Ex Christia. Messeo lib. 20. Chro.

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MarginaliaCecellus preacher of the popes pardons.This filthy kind of the popes marchandise, as it spread through all quarters of Christian regions, so it came also to Germany, through the meanes of certayne Dominicke Fryers 

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At this point, Foxe resumes drawing on Henry Bennet's translation of Melanchthon's biographical sketch of Luther. He will do this down to the discussion of Frederick the Wise's conversation with Erasmus about Luther (see A famous and godly history, trans. Henry Bennet (London, 1561), sigs. C1r-C3r).

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named Tecellius, 
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I.e., Johann Tetzel, a Dominican whose extravagant claims for the salvific power of indulgences, provoked Luther into his confrontation with the Church.

who most impudently caused þe Popes indulgences or pardons to be caryed & sold about the country. Whereupon, Luther muche moued with the blasphemous sermōs of this shameles Fryer, and hauing his hart earnestly bent with ardent desire to maytayne true religon, published certayne propositions concerning indulgences, Marginalia

Luthers propositions of pardons.

The first occasion on why Luther wrote against pardons.

which are to be read in the first Tome of hys works, and set them openly on the temple that ioyneth to the Castle of Wittenberge, the morrow after the feastes of all Saintes, the yeare. 1517.

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MarginaliaThe slaunder of Tecellus the Fryer.This beggerly Fryer hoping to obtaine þe popes blessing, assembled certayne Monkes & sophisticall diuines of his couent, & fortwith commanded thē to write something against Luther. And whilest he would not himselfe seeme to be dumme, he began not onely to inuey in his sermons but to thunder against Luther, crying: Luther is an hereticke, and worthy to be persecuted with fire: and besides this, he burned openly Luthers propositions and the sermon whiche he wrote of indulgences. This rage and fumish fury of this Frier, enforced Luther to treat more amply of the cause, and to mayntayne his matter.

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And thus rose the beginninges of this controuersie, wherein Luther neyther suspecting ne dreaming of anye chaunge that might happen in the ceremonies, did not vtterly reiect the indulgences, but required a moderation in them: and therfore they falsely accuse him, which blase that he began wt plausible matter, wherby he might get prayse, to the end that in progresse of time, he might change the state of the common weale, and purchase authoritie, eyther for himselfe or other.

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And certes, he was not suborned or styrred vp 

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Foxe (repeating Melanchthon) is denying the charge that Luther attacked the selling of indulgences at the behest of Frederick the Wise, the duke of Saxony. In fact, Melanchthon and Foxe declare (correctly) that Frederick was alarmed by the controversy.

by them of the courte (as the Duke of Brunswike wrote:) in so much that the Duke Frederick was sore offended that such contention and controuersie should arise, hauing regarde to the sequele thereof.

MarginaliaThe prayse of Friderick Duke of Saxonie.And as this good Duke Frederick was one of al þe princes of our time, that loued best quietnes and common tranquilitie, neither was auaricious, but willingly bent to referre al his counsels to the common vtilitie of all the world (as it is easy to be coniectured diuers waies:) so he neither encouraged nor supported Luther, but often represented semblaunce of heauines and sorrow, which he bare in hys hart, fearing greater dissentions: But being a wise prince and following the Counsaile of Gods rule, and well deliberating therupon, he thought with himselfe that the glory of God was to be preferred aboue all thinges. Neyther was he ignoraunt what blasphemy it was, horribly condemned of God, obstinately to repugne þe truth. Wherfore he did as a godly Prince should do: he obeyed God, cōmitting himselfe to his holy grace, and omnipotent protectiō. And although Maximilianus the Emperor, Carolus K. of Spaine, & Pope Iulius had geuen commaundement to the sayd Duke Fridericke, that he should inhibite Luther from all place and libertie of preachiug: yet the Duke considering with himselfe the preaching an & writing of Luther and weighing dilligently the testimonies and places of the Scripture by him alledged, would not withstād the thing, which he iudged sincere. 

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Unquestionably Frederick the Wise's staunch support for Luther saved Luther numerous times, particularly in the early stages of the Indulgence controversy, later when Luther was summoned to Rome and still later after the Diet of Worms. Frederick was a wealthy and powerful prince and (crucial to Luther's safety) the Habsburgs owed Frederick large sums of money.

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And yet neyther did he this, trusting to his own iudgemet, but was very anxious & inquisitiue to heare þe iudgements of other, whiche were both aged, & learned. In the number of whom was Erasmus, 
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This whole account of Erasmus's opinion of Luther is taken from Caspar Peucer, Chronicon Carionis (Wittenberg, 1580), p. 705 and Caspar Hedio, Paralipomena rerum memorabilium (Strausburg, 1569), pp. 447-8. Foxe is including this to emphasize Erasmus's support for the Reformation and to reduce the well-known disagreements between Luther and Erasmus to the level of personality clashes.

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whō the Duke desired to declare to him his opinion touching þe matter of Martine Luther, saying & protesting that he would rather the ground shuld open and swallow him, then he would beare wt any opinions, which he knew to be cōtrary to manifest truth: & therfore he desired him to declare his iudgement in þe matter, to him freely & frendly.

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MarginaliaThe iudgement of Erasmus touching Luther.Erasmus thus being entreated of the Duke, began thus iestingly and merely to answere the Dukes request, saying: that in Luther were two great faultes: first, that he would touch the bellyes of monks: the second, þt he would touch the popes crown: MarginaliaMonkes belies and the Popes crowne not to be touched. which two matters in no case are to be dealt withall. Then opening his minde playnly to þe Duke, thus he sayde, that Luther did well in detecting errours, and that reformation was to be wished, and very necessary in the church: and added moreouer, that the effect of his doctrine was true, but onely that he wished in him, a more temperate moderation and maner of writing and handling. Wherupon Duke Friderick shortly after wrote to Luther seriously, exhorting him to temperate the vehemency of his style. This was at the City of Colen, shortly after the Coronation of the newe Emperour, where also Huttenus, Aloisius, Marlianus, Ludouicus, viues, Halonius, with other learned men, were assembled together wayting vpon the Emperour. MarginaliaEx Chron. Casp. Peucer. lib. 5.

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Furthermore the same Erasmus, the yeare next folowing that, wrote vp to the Archbishop of Mentz a certayne Epistle touching the cause of Luther. In whiche Epistle thus he signifieth to the Byshop: MarginaliaEx epist. Erasm. ad Moguntinensem.That many thinges were in the bookes of Luther condemned of monkes and Diuines, for hereticall, whiche in the bookes of Bernarde and Austen are redde for sound and godly.

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Also, that the world is burdened MarginaliaThe churc burdened. h with mens institutions, with schole doctrines and opinions, and with the tyrannye of begging Friers: which Fryers when they are but the Popes seruaunts and vnderlinges: yet they haue so growne in power and multitude, that they are nowe terrible both to the pope himselfe, and to all princes. Who so long as the pope maketh with them, so long they make him more thē a God. But if he make any thing agaynst their purpose or commoditie, then they wey his authoritie no more then a dreame or phantasie.

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Once (sayd he) it was counted an heresie, when a man repugned agaynst the Gospell, or Articles of the fayth Now he that dissenteth from Thomas of Aquine, is an hereticke, whatsoeuer doth not like them, whatsoeuer they vnderstand not, that is heresie. To speake Greeke, is heresie. Or to speake more finely then they do, that is with them heresie. And thus much by the way, concerning the iudgement of Erasmus.

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Now to returne and to entreate 

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From here on down to the Leipzig debate, Foxe is drawing on, and synthesizing, Caspar Hedio's chronicle and Johannes Sleidan's Commentaries. (See Caspar Hedio, Paralipomena rerum memorabilium [Strassburg, 1559], pp. 447-50 and Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries [London, 1560], STC 19848, sigs. 1v-10r).

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something orderly of the actes and conflictes of Luther with hys aduersaryes: after þt Tecelius 
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I.e., Johann Tetzel, a Dominican whose extravagant claims for the salvific power of indulgences, provoked Luther into his confrontation with the Church.

the foresayd Fryer, wt his fellow monkes and Frierly fellowes, had cried out wt open mouth against Luther, in mayntayning the popes indulgences, and that Luther agayn in defence of hys cause, had set vp propositions against the open abuses of the same, maruell it was to see how soone these propositions, were sparckled abroad in sundry and farre places, and howe greedely they were cat-

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