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Marseille (Massilia)

[Marsels; Marsilia; Masilia; Marscile]

Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Coordinates: 43° 17' 51" N, 5° 22' 38" E

Cathedral city

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Oppède le Vieux [Opede]

Luberon, Vaucluse, Provence, France

Coordinates: 43° 50' 43" N, 5° 10' 10" E

975 [951]

K. Hen. 8. The history of Merindolians, and Cabriers. Minerius a bloudy persecutor.

mocke and gyre at all that had bin sayd: wherfore he required the Commissioner to looke vnto the matter. Then the Commissioner was very angry and sharpely rebuked his Secretary, commaunding him to sit nearer and to write their answeres word for word, and he himselfe with a singular memory, repeated their answeres, and oftētimes asked if it were not so. The sayd aunsweres being thus put in writing, the Cōmissioner asked the baylife if he had any more to answere, sayeng that he had done him great pleasure to shewe him his Secretaries faulte, willing him to speake boldly, what he thought good for the defence of their cause. Then the Baylife said, for somuch as it hath pleased you to geue me audience & liberty to speake my mind freely: MarginaliaThe proceeding with the Merindoliās not after forme of lawe.I say moreouer, that it semeth vnto me, that there is no due forme of processe in this iudgemēt: for there is no partie heere that doth accuse vs. If we had an accuser present, which according to the rule of the Scripture, either should proue by good demonstration out of the olde and new Testament, that wherof we are accused, or if he were not able, should suffer punishment due vnto such as are heretickes: I thinke he would be as greatly troubled to mainteine his accusations, as we are to aunswere vnto the same.

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After that the Baylife had made this answere, MarginaliaIohn Palēc answereth.Iohn Palenc, one of the auncients of Merindol, saide that he approued all that had bene sayd by the Syndiques, and that he was able to say no more then had bene said by them before. The Commissioner sayd vnto him: you are (I see) a very auncient man, and you haue not liued so long, but that you haue some thing to aunswere for your part, in defence of your cause. And the sayde Palenc aunswered: seeing it is your pleasure that I should say something, it seemeth vnto me vnpossible that (say what we can) we shoulde haue either victory or vantage: for our iudges be our enemies.

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MarginaliaThe vnder Baylife of Merindoll answereth.Then Iohn Bruneroll vnderbaylife at Merindoll, answered, that he would very faine know the authority of þe Counseller Durandus, Commissioner in this cause, for as much as the said Counseller had geuē them to vnderstād, that he had authority of the high Court, to make them abiure their errours, which should be found by good and sufficient information, and to geue them so doing, the pardon conteined in the Kings letters, and quite them of all punishment and condemnation. MarginaliaDurandus the Commissioner, required to shew his Cōmission. But the said Commissioner did not geue them to vnderstand, that if they could not be found, by good and sufficient information, that they were in errour, he had any power or authoritie to quite and absolue them of the sayd sentence and condemnation: Wherfore it seemed that it should be more vauntage for the sayd Merindolians, if it shoulde appeare that they were heretickes, then to be found to liue according to the doctrine of the Gospell. For this cause he required, that it woulde please the sayd Commissioner to make declaration therof: concluding that if it did not appeare by good and sufficient information against them, that they had swarued from the faith, or if there were no accuser that woulde come foorth against them, they ought to be fully absolued, without being any more troubled eyther in body or goodes.

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These things were thus in debating from seauen of the clocke in the morning, vntill xj. Then the Commissioner dismissed them till after dinner. MarginaliaThe Bailyfe & Sindickes, of Merindol appeare the second time.At one of the clocke at after noone, they were called for agayne, and demaunded whether they woulde say any thyng else, touchyng that which was propounded in the morning, by the said Commissioner. They aunswered, no. Then sayd the Commissioner, what do you conclude for your defence? The two Syndiques aunswered: we conclude that it would please you to declare vnto vs the errours and heresies, whereof we are accused. Then the Commissioner asked by Byshop of Cauaillon, what informations he had agaynst them. The Byshop spake vnto him in his eare, and would not aunswere aloude. This talke in the eare continued almost halfe an houre, that the Commissioner and all other that stoode thereby, were weary thereof. In the ende, the Commissioner sayd vnto them, that the Byshop of Cauaillon had told him, that it was not needefull to make it apparant by information, for such was the cōmon report. Here vnto they aunswered: that they required the causes and reasons alledged by the Byshop of Cauaillon, against them, should be put in writing. The Byshop was earnest to the contrary, and woulde haue nothyng that eyther he sayd or alledged, to be put in writing.

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Then Iohn Bruneroll required the Commissioner, that at the least, he would put in writing, that the Byshop would speake nothing agaynst them, that they could vnderstand, and that he woulde not speake before the Commissioner but only in his eare. The Byshop on the cōtrarie part, defended that he would not be named in processe. MarginaliaThey that do the workes of darckenes hate the light. There was great disputation vpon this matter, and cōti-nued long. Thē the Cōmissioner asked the Merindolians if they had the Articles of their confession, which they had presented to the high Court of Parliament. Then they required that their confession might be read, and by the readyng thereof they might vnderstand whether it were the doctrine, which they held, & the confession which they had presented, or no. MarginaliaThe confession of the Merindolians, exhibited and read.Then the confession was ready publickely before thē, which they did allow and acknowledged to be theirs. This done the Commissioner asked the Doctour if he did finde in the sayd confessiōs, any hereticall opinions, wherof he could make demōstration by the word of God, either out of the old or the new Testamēt. Then spake the Doctour in Latin a good while. After he had made an end: Andrew Mainard the Bayliffe desired the Commissioner, accordyng as he had propoūded, to make the errours and heresies that they were accused of, apparaūt vnto them by good information, or at the least, to marke those Articles of their confession, MarginaliaWhat were the articles & doctrine of their confession, read Sled. Lib. 16. which the Byshop & the Doctours pretēded to be hereticall, requiryng him also to put in Register, their refusall, aswell of the Byshop as of the Doct. of whō the one spake in his eare, and the other in Latine, so that they of Merindoll could not vnderstand one word. Then the Commissioner promised thē to put in writyng all that should make for their cause. And moreouer he sayd that it was not needefull to call the rest of the Merindolians, if there were no more to be sayd to them, then had bene sayd to those, which were already called. And this is þe summe of all that was done at the after noone.

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Many which came thether to heare these disputations: supposing that they should haue heard some goodly demōstrations, were greatly abashed to see the Byshop and the Doctour so confoūded: which thyng afterward turned to the great benefite of many: for hereby they were moued to require the copyes of þe confession of their fayth: by meanes wherof they were conuerted and embraced the truth, and namely iij. Doctours, who wēt about diuers tymes to diswade the Merindoliās from their fayth: whose ministery God afterwardes vsed in the preachyng of his Gospel. MarginaliaThree Doctours cōuerted by the confessiō of the Merindolians.Of whom one was Doctour Combandi Prior of S. Maximin, afterwardes a Preacher in the territory of the Lords of Berne. An other was Doctour Somati, who was also a Preacher in the Bailiwycke of Tonon. The other was Doctour Heraudi, pastour and Minister in the Countie of Newcastle.

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After this the inhabitaunts of Merindoll were in rest and quietnes for a space, in so much that euery man feared to goe about to trouble them, seyng those which persecuted them, did receaue nothyng but shame and confusion: as it dyd manifestly appeare, MarginaliaThe sodeine death of a persecutor.not onely by the suddeyne death of the President Chassance, but also many other of the chiefest Counsellers of the Parliament of Prouince, whose horrible cnd terrified many, but specially þe straūge and fearefull exāple of that bloudy tyran Iohn de Roma, set out as a spectacle to all persecutours whereof we haue spoken before.

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Thus the Lord 

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Here, Foxe refers to the arrival in post of Jehan Meynier, sieur d'Oppède in December 1543 as premier president of the Parlement of Aix-en-Provence. He held lands in the region between Cabrières d'Avignon and Mérindol and, as Foxe was only too keen to emphasise, had material interests (in addition to the fears of the apparently increasing dangers of heresy and division in the province). In addition, however (in a way that protestant accounts did not mention) he was concerned about rumours that the Vaudois were organizing themselves for self-defence, taking advantage of the natural strongholds I the Luberon. There were rumours that they intended to rebel and turn Provence into a canton after the Swiss fashion. Later in 1543, the Vaudois of Cabrières successded in fortifying their village, whilst those of Mérindol pillaged the abbey of Sinanque. The fears of a rebellion akin to the Great Peasants' War of 1524-6 in Germany were important in enabling Meynier to secure the letters-patent of 1 February 1545 by which the original arrêt of 18 November 1540 was to be enforced.

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repressing the rage of the aduersaries for a tyme, stayd the violence and execution of that cruell sentence or Arrest geuen out by the Parliament of Prouince, agaynst the Merindoliās, vntill Iohn Miniers, MarginaliaMinerius a pestilent persecutor without all reasō and measure. an exceedyng bloudy tyran, began a new persecution. This Miniers beyng Lord of Opede neare to Merindoll, first began to vexe the poore Christians by pillyng and polyng, by oppression & extortion, getting frō them what he could, to enlarge his Segnorie or Lordshyp, whiche before was very base. Marginalia6. Martirs of Opede.For this cause he put v. or vi. of his owne Tenauntes into a Cisterne vnder the grounde, and closing it vp, there he kept them, till they dyed for hunger, pretēding that they were Lutheranes, and Vaudoys, to haue their goodes and possessions. By this and such other practises, this wretche was aduaūced in short space, to great wealth and dignitie, & so at lēgth became not onely the chiefe Presidēt of the high Court of Parliament, but also the kynges Lieutenaunt generall in the countrey of Prouince, MarginaliaMinerius made the kinges Lieutenant of Prouince. in the absence of the Lord Grignan, then beyng at the Councell of Wormes in Germany. Now therfore seyng no oportunitie to be lacking to accomplish his deuilish enterprise, he employed all his power, richesse, & authoritie not onely to confirme and to reuiue that cruell Arrest geuen out before by the Court of Parliament: but also (as a right minister of Sathan) hee exceedyngly encreased the cruelty thereof, which was already so great, that it seemed there could nothyng more be added thereunto. MarginaliaFalse accusatiōs and crimes forged vpō the innocēt Christiās.And to bryng this mischief to passe, he forged a most impudent lye, geuyng the kyng to vnderstād that they of Merindoll & all the countrey neare about, to the nūber of twelue or fiueten thousand, were in the field in armour with theyr Ensigne displayed, entendyng to take the Towne of Marseille, and

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